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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Water Supply

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Disease relevance of Water Supply


Psychiatry related information on Water Supply


High impact information on Water Supply

  • The findings show that the prevalence of H pylori infection is high among young Peruvian children and that the municipal water supply seems to be an important source of infection among Lima children from families of both low and high socioeconomic status [7].
  • Aluminium deposition in bone after contamination of drinking water supply [8].
  • In Annan, a similar town which has never had fluoride added to the water supply, caries prevalence fell significantly, with little change in the cost of dental treatment [9].
  • NANB is widespread in India and several countries of South-East Asia; it is increasingly recognised in Africa and may occur in Latin America. Control measures include provision of clean water supplies, safe disposal of human excreta, and sound personal and food hygiene practices [10].
  • Both cadmium and nitrosamines are known environmental contaminants present in air, food, water supplies, and tobacco smoke [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Water Supply

  • Two of 3 adult Greyhounds with clinical signs of giardiasis were treated by the addition of ipronidazole hydrochloride to their water supply (126 mg/L) for 7 days [12].
  • Rats with permanent access to a water supply adulterated with citric acid (CA) displayed persistent reductions in fluid intake and fluid/food ratios; and at appropriate concentrations of CA, they also exhibited lowered body weights and drinking deficits after fluid deprivation and after hypertonic NaCl injections [13].
  • This paper analyses the situation in countries comprising the WHO South-East Asia Region with respect to water supply and sanitation services, hygiene and the epidemiology of related infectious diseases [14].
  • In two separate blocks of experiments, the extreme within-group aggression which is typically associated with limbic seizure-induced brain injury in male rats was attenuated or abolished within two days by the administration of prednisolone in the water supply [15].
  • Chlorodibromomethane, a trihalomethane found in water supplies after chlorination, was administered by gavage in corn oil to male and female Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in toxicity studies of 13 weeks and 2 years duration [16].

Biological context of Water Supply


Anatomical context of Water Supply

  • The results indicate that fluoride might be not clastogenic to human fibroblasts when exposed at low levels, equivalent to those in the communal water supplies [22].
  • Thyroid volume (ThV) and echogenicity by ultrasound were estimated in 324 schoolchildren (aged between 10 and 13-years) from high nitrate area (HNA) located in agricultural lowland with high nitrate drinking water supply (51-274 mg/l) from shallow wells [23].
  • The effect of the presence of fluoride in toothpaste on tooth wear was investigated in extracted human premolar teeth collected from two geographic areas with different fluoride concentrations in the public water supply [24].

Associations of Water Supply with chemical compounds


Gene context of Water Supply

  • In rats with normal water supply, daily urinary excretion of AQP2 was 3.9+/-0.9% (n = 6) of total kidney expression [30].
  • At the recent World Water '86 conference in London, the Director of Water Supply and Urban Development in the Operations Policy Department of the World Bank chastised the assembled engineers for behaving like religious fanatics, convinced that their work is good and righteous but not willing (or able) to demonstrate this [31].
  • Antibody activity in sera of patients with humidifier disease: studies of the water supply as a source of antigens [32].
  • New methods such as those using polymerase chain reaction may help with detection of Cryptosporidium in water supplies or in asymptomatic carriers [33].
  • OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether higher IDDM incidence rates occurred in areas with high nitrate levels in their potable water supplies [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Water Supply


  1. Dental caries prevalence in Texas schoolchildren using water supplies with high and low lithium and fluoride. Curzon, M.E., Richardson, D.S., Featherstone, J.D. J. Dent. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Nitrate in public water supplies and the risk of colon and rectum cancers. De Roos, A.J., Ward, M.H., Lynch, C.F., Cantor, K.P. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia: an ecologic study. Fagliano, J., Berry, M., Bove, F., Burke, T. American journal of public health. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Inactivation of glutathione transferase zeta by dichloroacetic acid and other fluorine-lacking alpha-haloalkanoic acids. Anderson, W.B., Board, P.G., Gargano, B., Anders, M.W. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Alzheimer's disease and the relationship between silicon and aluminium in water supplies in northern England. Taylor, G.A., Newens, A.J., Edwardson, J.A., Kay, D.W., Forster, D.P. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Bone mass and dementia in hip fracture patients from areas with different aluminium concentrations in water supplies. Wood, D.J., Cooper, C., Stevens, J., Edwardson, J. Age and ageing. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Water source as risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children. Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group. Klein, P.D., Graham, D.Y., Gaillour, A., Opekun, A.R., Smith, E.O. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Aluminium deposition in bone after contamination of drinking water supply. Eastwood, J.B., Levin, G.E., Pazianas, M., Taylor, A.P., Denton, J., Freemont, A.J. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Trends in dental health of ten-year-old school children in south-west Scotland after cessation of water fluoridation. Attwood, D., Blinkhorn, A.S. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Waterborne non-A, non-B hepatitis. Ramalingaswami, V., Purcell, R.H. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Marked synergism of dimethylnitrosamine carcinogenesis in rats exposed to cadmium. Wade, G.G., Mandel, R., Ryser, H.J. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment of giardiasis in adult Greyhounds, using ipronidazole-medicated water. Abbitt, B., Huey, R.L., Eugster, A.K., Syler, J. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Water adulteration with citric acid: effects on drinking and responsivity to regulatory challenges. Watson, P.J., Beatey, S., Wagner, F., Stahl, T. Physiol. Behav. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Situation analysis and epidemiology of infectious disease transmission: a South-East Asian regional perspective. Thompson, T., Khan, S. International journal of environmental health research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Prednisolone blocks extreme intermale social aggression in seizure-induced, brain-damaged rats: implications for the amygdaloid central nucleus, corticotrophin-releasing factor, and electrical seizures. Bedard, A.W., Persinger, M.A. Psychological reports. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chlorodibromomethane in Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Dunnick, J.K., Haseman, J.K., Lilja, H.S., Wyand, S. Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Thirty years of fluoridation: a review. Richmond, V.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Changes in apoplastic pH and membrane potential in leaves in relation to stomatal responses to CO2, malate, abscisic acid or interruption of water supply. Hedrich, R., Neimanis, S., Savchenko, G., Felle, H.H., Kaiser, W.M., Heber, U. Planta (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Chlorine isotope fractionation during microbial reduction of perchlorate. Sturchio, N.C., Hatzinger, P.B., Arkins, M.D., Suh, C., Heraty, L.J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Screening method for the gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of microgram/litre levels of bromate in bottled water. Nyman, P.J., Canas, B.J., Joe, F.L., Diachenko, G.W. Food additives and contaminants. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Numerical simulation of a fine-grained denitrification layer for removing septic system nitrate from shallow groundwater. MacQuarrie, K.T., Sudicky, E.A., Robertson, W.D. J. Contam. Hydrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. No increases in chromosome aberrations in human diploid fibroblasts following exposure to low concentrations of sodium fluoride for long times. Tsutsui, T., Tanaka, Y., Matsudo, Y., Uehama, A., Someya, T., Hamaguchi, F., Yamamoto, H., Takahashi, M. Mutat. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased thyroid volume and frequency of thyroid disorders signs in schoolchildren from nitrate polluted area. Tajtáková, M., Semanová, Z., Tomková, Z., Szökeová, E., Majoros, J., Rádiková, Z., Seböková, E., Klimes, I., Langer, P. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of the effect of fluoride and non-fluoride toothpaste on tooth wear in vitro and the influence of enamel fluoride concentration and hardness of enamel. Bartlett, D.W., Smith, B.G., Wilson, R.F. British dental journal. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Bromodichloromethane, a trihalomethane that produces neoplasms in rodents. Dunnick, J.K., Eustis, S.L., Lilja, H.S. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Incidence of childhood diabetes mellitus in Yorkshire, northern England, is associated with nitrate in drinking water: an ecological analysis. Parslow, R.C., McKinney, P.A., Law, G.R., Staines, A., Williams, R., Bodansky, H.J. Diabetologia (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of copper in Indian childhood cirrhosis. Tanner, M.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Application of low-temperature glassy carbon films in solid-phase microextraction. Giardina, M., Olesik, S.V. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Threshold of trichloroethylene contamination in maternal drinking waters affecting fetal heart development in the rat. Johnson, P.D., Goldberg, S.J., Mays, M.Z., Dawson, B.V. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in rat is mediated by a vasopressin-dependent apical pathway. Wen, H., Frokiaer, J., Kwon, T.H., Nielsen, S. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Wanted: entrepreneurial parasitologists. Muller, M. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Antibody activity in sera of patients with humidifier disease: studies of the water supply as a source of antigens. Patterson, R., Fink, J.N., Roberts, M., Kelly, J.F., Sommers, H.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  33. Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging, highly infectious threat. Guerrant, R.L. Emerging Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Nitrate levels in community drinking waters and risk of IDDM. An ecological analysis. Kostraba, J.N., Gay, E.C., Rewers, M., Hamman, R.F. Diabetes Care (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Economic evaluation of community programs for the prevention of dental caries in Catalonia, Spain. Manau, C., Cuenca, E., Martínez-Carretero, J., Salleras, L. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Techniques and methods for the determination of haloacetic acids in potable water. Urbansky, E.T. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. DNA damage caused by extracts of chlorinated drinking water in human derived liver cells (HepG2). Lu, W.Q., Chen, D., Wu, X.J., Liu, A.L., Liu, H., Wu, J.J., Mersch-Sundermann, V. Toxicology (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. FDA safety alert: sodium azide contamination of hemodialysis water supplies. Villforth, J.C. ANNA journal / American Nephrology Nurses' Association. (1989) [Pubmed]
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