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Chemical Compound Review

nicotine     3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2- yl]pyridine

Synonyms: Habitrol, Micotine, Nicabate, Nicoderm, Nicotrol, ...
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Disease relevance of nicotine


Psychiatry related information on nicotine


Chemical compound and disease context of nicotine


Associations of nicotine with other chemical compounds

  • Acetaldehyde potentiated nicotine-induced c-fos in CeA and SC, and activation of PVN c-fos expression/plasma corticosterone release; however, this drug interaction was only observed in behaviorally tested animals, not those that were minimally stressed [5].
  • These data suggest that atomoxetine may be efficacious for treating nicotine withdrawal-associated cognitive deficits that promote relapse in abstinent smokers [6].
  • These receptors are up-regulated and tyrosine phosphorylated by treatment with nicotine, anti-TCR Abs, or Con A [7].
  • Nicotine could up-regulate expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, costimulatory molecules, such as CD80, CD86, and CD40, adhesion molecule CD11b, and chemokine receptor CCR7 and enhance endocytosis ability of imDCs [8].
  • Low-dose nicotine cues had no effect on corticosterone levels nor did they elicit conditioned motor activation, and they caused minor elevations in gene expression [9].
  • For the 2-Lever group, acute mecamylamine challenge blocked the reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine, VS-lever responding decreased to basal levels on the first day of mecamylamine treatment or saline substitution (to the level of the VS-Only group) [10].
  • Nicotine caused a greater increase in (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT than did other interventions, and the effect was increased when nicotine was combined with ephedrine [11].
  • Pretreatment with 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) or 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) decreased nicotine intake as well as the enhanced responding for the concurrently available VS [12].
  • Results indicated that acute methylphenidate increased the rate of nicotine self-administration at doses that reduced sucrose-maintained responding; furthermore, tolerance to this effect was not apparent following repeated methylphenidate [13].

Gene context of nicotine


  1. The association of nicotine replacement therapy with mortality in a medical intensive care unit. Lee, A.H., Afessa, B. Crit. Care Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Nicotine induces hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in human lung cancer cells via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Zhang, Q., Tang, X., Zhang, Z.F., Velikina, R., Shi, S., Le, A.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Nicotine self-administration, extinction responding and reinstatement in adolescent and adult male rats: evidence against a biological vulnerability to nicotine addiction during adolescence. Shram, M.J., Funk, D., Li, Z., Lê, A.D. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanism and tissue specificity of nicotine-mediated lung S-adenosylmethionine reduction. Moncada, C.A., Clarkson, A., Perez-Leal, O., Merali, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  5. Acetaldehyde, a major constituent of tobacco smoke, enhances behavioral, endocrine, and neuronal responses to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. Cao, J., Belluzzi, J.D., Loughlin, S.E., Keyler, D.E., Pentel, P.R., Leslie, F.M. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Atomoxetine reverses nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in contextual fear conditioning. Davis, J.A., Gould, T.J. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. T cells express alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits that require a functional TCR and leukocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase for nicotine-induced Ca2+ response. Razani-Boroujerdi, S., Boyd, R.T., Dávila-García, M.I., Nandi, J.S., Mishra, N.C., Singh, S.P., Pena-Philippides, J.C., Langley, R., Sopori, M.L. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Ex vivo nicotine stimulation augments the efficacy of therapeutic bone marrow-derived dendritic cell vaccination. Gao, F.G., Wan, D.F., Gu, J.R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Acute stress and nicotine cues interact to unveil locomotor arousal and activity-dependent gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Schiltz, C.A., Kelley, A.E., Landry, C.F. Biol. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the primary reinforcing and reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine. Palmatier, M.I., Liu, X., Caggiula, A.R., Donny, E.C., Sved, A.F. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of nicotine and ephedrine on the accumulation of 18F-FDG in brown adipose tissue. Baba, S., Tatsumi, M., Ishimori, T., Lilien, D.L., Engles, J.M., Wahl, R.L. J. Nucl. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGluR5) antagonists decrease nicotine seeking, but do not affect the reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine. Palmatier, M.I., Liu, X., Donny, E.C., Caggiula, A.R., Sved, A.F. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  13. Methylphenidate enhances the abuse-related behavioral effects of nicotine in rats: intravenous self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor cross-sensitization. Wooters, T.E., Neugebauer, N.M., Rush, C.R., Bardo, M.T. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  14. Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior. Johnstone, E., Benowitz, N., Cargill, A., Jacob, R., Hinks, L., Day, I., Murphy, M., Walton, R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Benowitz, N.L., Swan, G.E., Jacob, P., Lessov-Schlaggar, C.N., Tyndale, R.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism. Ring, H.Z., Valdes, A.M., Nishita, D.M., Prasad, S., Jacob, P., Tyndale, R.F., Swan, G.E., Benowitz, N.L. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by UGT2B10: loss of function by the UGT2B10 Codon 67 (Asp>Tyr) polymorphism. Chen, G., Blevins-Primeau, A.S., Dellinger, R.W., Muscat, J.E., Lazarus, P. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
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