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Chemical Compound Review

Tomoxetina     (3R)-N-methyl-3-(2- methylphenoxy)-3-phenyl...

Synonyms: Tomoxetine, Atomoxetine, Tomoxetinum, CHEMBL641, Tocris-2011, ...
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Disease relevance of Tomoxetine

  • Adverse events reported significantly more frequently with atomoxetine than placebo included dry mouth, insomnia, nausea, decreased appetite, constipation, dizziness, sweating, dysuria, sexual problems and palpitations [1].
  • First case of sialolithiasis associated with atomoxetine [2].
  • Subjects were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of treatment with atomoxetine or placebo and were assessed with Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB), the Sheehan Disability Scale, the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) before and after treatment [3].
  • In the second child, the evaluation was suggestive of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis; she subsequently improved with removal of atomoxetine and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy [4].
  • Atomoxetine for weight reduction in obese women: a preliminary randomised controlled trial [5].

Psychiatry related information on Tomoxetine


High impact information on Tomoxetine

  • Since brain acetylcholine (ACh) has been associated with memory, attention and motivation, processes dysregulated in ADHD, we investigated the effects of atomoxetine on cholinergic neurotransmission [6].
  • Decreased atomoxetine clearance in patients with hepatic impairment was clearly correlated with decreased CYP2D6 activity and decreased hepatic blood flow [10].
  • Effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its metabolites [10].
  • To assess the efficacy of atomoxetine, a new and highly selective inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter, we conducted two large, multicenter treatment trials [11].
  • Mean atomoxetine plasma protein binding was lower in patients with hepatic impairment compared with controls (96.5% versus 98.7%, P =.0008) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tomoxetine


Biological context of Tomoxetine


Anatomical context of Tomoxetine


Associations of Tomoxetine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Tomoxetine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tomoxetine


  1. Atomoxetine: a review of its use in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Simpson, D., Plosker, G.L. Drugs (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. First case of sialolithiasis associated with atomoxetine. Jerome, L., Gardner, D., Kutcher, S.P. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Atomoxetine and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the effects of comorbidity. Spencer, T.J., Faraone, S.V., Michelson, D., Adler, L.A., Reimherr, F.W., Glatt, S.J., Biederman, J. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Severe liver injury after initiating therapy with atomoxetine in two children. Lim, J.R., Faught, P.R., Chalasani, N.P., Molleston, J.P. J. Pediatr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Atomoxetine for weight reduction in obese women: a preliminary randomised controlled trial. Gadde, K.M., Yonish, G.M., Wagner, H.R., Foust, M.S., Allison, D.B. International journal of obesity (2005) (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Procholinergic and memory enhancing properties of the selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Tzavara, E.T., Bymaster, F.P., Overshiner, C.D., Davis, R.J., Perry, K.W., Wolff, M., McKinzie, D.L., Witkin, J.M., Nomikos, G.G. Mol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Bymaster, F.P., Katner, J.S., Nelson, D.L., Hemrick-Luecke, S.K., Threlkeld, P.G., Heiligenstein, J.H., Morin, S.M., Gehlert, D.R., Perry, K.W. Neuropsychopharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Atomoxetine also effective in patients suffering from narcolepsy? Niederhofer, H. Sleep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Augmentation with open-label atomoxetine for partial or nonresponse to antidepressants. Carpenter, L.L., Milosavljevic, N., Schecter, J.M., Tyrka, A.R., Price, L.H. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its metabolites. Chalon, S.A., Desager, J.P., Desante, K.A., Frye, R.F., Witcher, J., Long, A.J., Sauer, J.M., Golnez, J.L., Smith, B.P., Thomasson, H.R., Horsmans, Y. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Atomoxetine in adults with ADHD: two randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Michelson, D., Adler, L., Spencer, T., Reimherr, F.W., West, S.A., Allen, A.J., Kelsey, D., Wernicke, J., Dietrich, A., Milton, D. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Safety profile of atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Wernicke, J.F., Kratochvil, C.J. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptor mediates hyperactivity of coloboma mice, a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Bruno, K.J., Hess, E.J. Neurobiol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: revision of the algorithm for pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pliszka, S.R., Crismon, M.L., Hughes, C.W., Corners, C.K., Emslie, G.J., Jensen, P.S., McCracken, J.T., Swanson, J.M., Lopez, M. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. A case of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder alleviated by milnacipran. Kako, Y., Niwa, Y., Toyomaki, A., Yamanaka, H., Kitagawa, N., Denda, K., Koyama, T. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Clinical pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine. Sauer, J.M., Ring, B.J., Witcher, J.W. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Carbon-11-d-threo-methylphenidate binding to dopamine transporter in baboon brain. Ding, Y.S., Fowler, J.S., Volkow, N.D., Logan, J., Gatley, S.J., Sugano, Y. J. Nucl. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Cardiovascular effects of atomoxetine in children, adolescents, and adults. Wernicke, J.F., Faries, D., Girod, D., Brown, J., Gao, H., Kelsey, D., Quintana, H., Lipetz, R., Michelson, D., Heiligenstein, J. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Clinical pharmacology of tomoxetine, a potential antidepressant. Zerbe, R.L., Rowe, H., Enas, G.G., Wong, D., Farid, N., Lemberger, L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of the inhibitory and excitatory effects of ADHD medications methylphenidate and atomoxetine on motor cortex. Gilbert, D.L., Ridel, K.R., Sallee, F.R., Zhang, J., Lipps, T.D., Wassermann, E.M. Neuropsychopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine on extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine in several brain regions of the rat. Swanson, C.J., Perry, K.W., Koch-Krueger, S., Katner, J., Svensson, K.A., Bymaster, F.P. Neuropharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on sleep in children with ADHD. Sangal, R.B., Owens, J., Allen, A.J., Sutton, V., Schuh, K., Kelsey, D. Sleep (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Decreased use of clonidine following treatment with atomoxetine in children with ADHD. Johnston, J.A., Ye, W., Van Brunt, D.L., Pohl, G., Sumner, C.R. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Impact of ADHD and its treatment on substance abuse in adults. Wilens, T.E. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Atomoxetine hydrochloride: clinical drug-drug interaction prediction and outcome. Sauer, J.M., Long, A.J., Ring, B., Gillespie, J.S., Sanburn, N.P., DeSante, K.A., Petullo, D., VandenBranden, M.R., Jensen, C.B., Wrighton, S.A., Smith, B.P., Read, H.A., Witcher, J.W. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. CYP2D6 and clinical response to atomoxetine in children and adolescents with ADHD. Michelson, D., Read, H.A., Ruff, D.D., Witcher, J., Zhang, S., McCracken, J. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification of the human cytochromes P450 responsible for atomoxetine metabolism. Ring, B.J., Gillespie, J.S., Eckstein, J.A., Wrighton, S.A. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Effectiveness and tolerability of tomoxetine in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Spencer, T., Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Prince, J., Hatch, M., Jones, J., Harding, M., Faraone, S.V., Seidman, L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Michelson, D., Allen, A.J., Busner, J., Casat, C., Dunn, D., Kratochvil, C., Newcorn, J., Sallee, F.R., Sangal, R.B., Saylor, K., West, S., Kelsey, D., Wernicke, J., Trapp, N.J., Harder, D. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Evaluation of the reinforcing effects of monoamine reuptake inhibitors under a concurrent schedule of food and i.v. drug delivery in rhesus monkeys. Gasior, M., Bergman, J., Kallman, M.J., Paronis, C.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
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