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Chemical Compound Review

tyrosine     (2S)-2-amino-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)propanoic...

Synonyms: tirosina, Rxosine, Tyrosinum, L-Tyrosin, L-tyrosine, ...
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Disease relevance of tyrosine

  • Plasma phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in arteriolar blood obtained by finger prick from 78 normal volunteers and 36 heterozygote carriers of phenylketonuria (PKU) [1].
  • In this study, we show that thirty-five of thirty-seven tested Bacillus thuringiensis strains possess the potential to produce melanin in the presence of L-tyrosin at elevated temperature (42 degrees C) [2].
  • Infusion of Epi (500 nM) to the hindquarters of fed rats led to a sharp decrease in the Tyr release to 50% within 5 min, accompanied by an increase in perfusion pressure and edema around the perfused tissues [3].

High impact information on tyrosine


Anatomical context of tyrosine

  • Whether the above results are affected by changes in Tyr transport at the plasma membrane was tested by measuring Tyr efflux from the perfused muscle [3].
  • These results suggested that the suppression of Tyr release by alpha-adrenergic activity was mainly due to the effect on Tyr efflux, whereas that by beta-adrenergic activity was not at the Tyr transport level but at the proteolysis level, demonstrating that Epi directly inhibits proteolysis of skeletal muscle via the beta-adrenoceptor [3].
  • Results indicated that the levels of tyrosine (Tyr) and dopamine (DA) were lowered, the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydoxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) increased, and the frequency of the spontaneous discharge of nerve cells in VMH lowered in the obese rat group as compared with the normal group [9].

Associations of tyrosine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of tyrosine

  • Treatment of tumor-bearing nude mice with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD6474, which specifically inhibits RET, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelium growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases, resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth [17].
  • Activation of PLCgamma2 via GPVI is dependent on 2 complementary events: its interaction with the tyrosine 136 of LAT and its membrane location, which itself requires events mediated by the 3 C-terminal tyrosines of LAT [18].
  • Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that AnkA could bind to Abl-interactor 1 (Abi-1), an adaptor protein that interacts with Abl-1 tyrosine kinase, thus mediating AnkA phosphorylation [19].
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 was associated with delayed opening of interendothelial junctions [20].
  • Synapses are structurally simplified and the organization of postjunctional folds is aberrant in mice lacking tyrosine phosphorylation of the AChR beta-subunit [21].
  • Efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of Mtss1 in response to PDGF also involves a coiled-coil domain, which is essential for a proper distribution to the cell leading edge and dorsal ruffles [22].
  • BK channel regulation was not dependent upon direct phosphorylation of the BK alpha-subunit, rather channel function was controlled by the tyrosine phosphorylation status of the adapter protein cortactin that assembles directly with the BK channel [23].
  • We demonstrate that siRNA screening can identify tyrosine kinase targets containing activating mutations in Janus kinase (JAK) 3 (A572V) in CMK cells and c-KIT (V560G) in HMC1.1 cells [24].
  • ECP and EDN crystal structures revealed and EPO structure modeling suggested that the nitrated tyrosine residues in the toxins are surface exposed [25].
  • These data indicate that LPS recognition by TLR4 activates the SFKs, c-SRC, FYN, and YES, which, in turn, contribute to tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins to open the endothelial paracellular pathway [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of tyrosine


  1. A simple method for detection of heterozygous carriers of the gene for classic phenylketonuria. Hilton, M.A., Sharpe, J.N., Hicks, L.G., Andrews, B.F. J. Pediatr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Melanin pigment formation and increased UV resistance in Bacillus thuringiensis following high temperature induction. Ruan, L., Yu, Z., Fang, B., He, W., Wang, Y., Shen, P. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Acute effect of epinephrine on muscle proteolysis in perfused rat hindquarters. Kadowaki, M., Kamata, T., Noguchi, T. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Establishment of a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line resistant to gefitinib. Koizumi, F., Shimoyama, T., Taguchi, F., Saijo, N., Nishio, K. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Antigen receptor signal transduction: activating and inhibitory antigen receptors regulate STAT1 serine phosphorylation. Lafont, V., Decker, T., Cantrell, D. Eur. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Detection of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus using RFLP-PCR technique. Tiwari, J., Kumar, S., Kolte, A.P., Swarnkar, C.P., Singh, D., Pathak, K.M. Vet. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Importance of the mutation of amino acid 200 of the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene in the benzimidazole resistance of the small-ruminant parasite Teladorsagia circumcincta. Elard, L., Humbert, J.F. Parasitol. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Interspecies and interstrain studies on the increased susceptibility to metrazol-induced convulsions in animals given aspartame. Diomede, L., Romano, M., Guiso, G., Caccia, S., Nava, S., Salmona, M. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Study on action of acupuncture on ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus in obese rats. Liu, Z., Sun, F., Su, J., Zhao, M., Zhu, M., Wang, Y., Wei, Q., Li, J., Gu, Y. Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan / sponsored by All-China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Evaluation of an aspartame loading test for the detection of heterozygotes for classical phenylketonuria. Silva, L.C., Pires, R.F., Coelho, J.C., Jardim, L.B., Giugliani, R. Clin. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Determination of the sites of tyrosine O-sulfation in peptides and proteins. Yu, Y., Hoffhines, A.J., Moore, K.L., Leary, J.A. Nat. Methods (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and reversible oxidation: two cross-talking posttranslation modifications. Chiarugi, P., Buricchi, F. Antioxid. Redox Signal. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of a potential general acid/base in the reversible phosphoryl transfer reactions catalyzed by tyrosine recombinases: Flp H305. Whiteson, K.L., Chen, Y., Chopra, N., Raymond, A.C., Rice, P.A. Chem. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Crystal-induced neutrophil activation: X. Proinflammatory role of the tyrosine kinase Tec. Popa-Nita, O., Marois, L., Paré, G., Naccache, P.H. Arthritis Rheum. (2008) [Pubmed]
  15. Structural characterization of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) reveals a unique (DFG-out) conformation and enables inhibitor design. Han, S., Mistry, A., Chang, J.S., Cunningham, D., Griffor, M., Bonnette, P.C., Wang, H., Chrunyk, B.A., Aspnes, G.E., Walker, D.P., Brosius, A.D., Buckbinder, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  16. The crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus prephenate dehydrogenase reveals the mode of tyrosine inhibition. Sun, W., Shahinas, D., Bonvin, J., Hou, W., Kimber, M.S., Turnbull, J., Christendat, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  17. A transplantable human medullary thyroid carcinoma as a model for RET tyrosine kinase-driven tumorigenesis. Johanson, V., Ahlman, H., Bernhardt, P., Jansson, S., Kölby, L., Persson, F., Stenman, G., Swärd, C., Wängberg, B., Stridsberg, M., Nilsson, O. Endocr. Relat. Cancer (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Roles of the C-terminal tyrosine residues of LAT in GPVI-induced platelet activation: insights into the mechanism of PLC gamma 2 activation. Ragab, A., Séverin, S., Gratacap, M.P., Aguado, E., Malissen, M., Jandrot-Perrus, M., Malissen, B., Ragab-Thomas, J., Payrastre, B. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA secreted by type IV secretion system is tyrosine phosphorylated by Abl-1 to facilitate infection. Lin, M., den Dulk-Ras, A., Hooykaas, P.J., Rikihisa, Y. Cell. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Breakdown of paraendothelial barrier function during Marburg virus infection is associated with early tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. Böckeler, M., Ströher, U., Seebach, J., Afanasieva, T., Suttorp, N., Feldmann, H., Schnittler, H.J. J. Infect. Dis. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Synaptic differentiation is defective in mice lacking acetylcholine receptor beta-subunit tyrosine phosphorylation. Friese, M.B., Blagden, C.S., Burden, S.J. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Tyrosine phosphorylation of missing in metastasis protein is implicated in platelet-derived growth factor-mediated cell shape changes. Wang, Y., Zhou, K., Zeng, X., Lin, J., Zhan, X. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Reversible tyrosine protein phosphorylation regulates large conductance voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels via cortactin. Tian, L., McClafferty, H., Chen, L., Shipston, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  24. RNAi screening of the tyrosine kinome identifies therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia. Tyner, J.W., Walters, D.K., Willis, S.G., Luttropp, M., Oost, J., Loriaux, M., Erickson, H., Corbin, A.S., O'Hare, T., Heinrich, M.C., Deininger, M.W., Druker, B.J. Blood (2008) [Pubmed]
  25. Post-translational tyrosine nitration of eosinophil granule toxins mediated by eosinophil peroxidase. Ulrich, M., Petre, A., Youhnovski, N., Prömm, F., Schirle, M., Schumm, M., Pero, R.S., Doyle, A., Checkel, J., Kita, H., Thiyagarajan, N., Acharya, K.R., Schmid-Grendelmeier, P., Simon, H.U., Schwarz, H., Tsutsui, M., Shimokawa, H., Bellon, G., Lee, J.J., Przybylski, M., Döring, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  26. TLR4 signaling is coupled to SRC family kinase activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia. Gong, P., Angelini, D.J., Yang, S., Xia, G., Cross, A.S., Mann, D., Bannerman, D.D., Vogel, S.N., Goldblum, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
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