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MeSH Review

Pan troglodytes

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Disease relevance of Pan troglodytes


Psychiatry related information on Pan troglodytes


High impact information on Pan troglodytes

  • Although Vpr is selected against when virus is adapted to tissue culture, we show that selection for Vpr function in vivo occurs in both humans and chimpanzees infected with HIV-1 [7].
  • A combination AIDS vaccine approach consisting of priming with adenovirus-HIV-1MN gp160 recombinants followed by boosting with HIV-1SF2 gp120 was evaluated in chimpanzees [8].
  • HLA-A and B polymorphisms predate the divergence of humans and chimpanzees [9].
  • We have now compared class I MHC alleles in two closely related species: humans (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [9].
  • The anatomic pattern and left hemisphere size predominance of the planum temporale, a language area of the human brain, are also present in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pan troglodytes


Biological context of Pan troglodytes


Anatomical context of Pan troglodytes


Associations of Pan troglodytes with chemical compounds

  • To examine this issue, we infused relatively high concentrations of recombinant Factor VIIa (approximately 50 micrograms/kg body wt) into normal chimpanzees and observed significant increases in the plasma levels of Factor IX activation peptide, Factor X activation peptide, and prothrombin activation fragment F1+2 [26].
  • Sucrose density gradient fractions of two of the infectious human sera (peak reverse transcriptase activity at 1.14 g/ml) transmitted NANBH to chimpanzees [27].
  • Within 6 months after inoculation with the closely related strains HTLV-IIIB or LAV-1, six chimpanzees developed serum antibodies to the C-terminal half (amino acids 288-467) of the HTLV-IIIB external envelope glycoprotein gp120 [28].
  • The intracellular distribution of HCV RNA was monitored in the livers of two chimpanzees experimentally infected with the H strain of HCV and compared with the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, serum HCV RNA, and liver histopathology [29].
  • This neutralization epitope, putatively consisting of a loop between two cysteine residues (amino acids 296 and 331) connected by a disulfide bond, is immunodominant in HIV-1-infected chimpanzees and induces antibodies restricted to the homologous viral strain [28].

Gene context of Pan troglodytes

  • Neuropathology and apolipoprotein E profile of aged chimpanzees: implications for Alzheimer disease [30].
  • Chimpanzees and gorillas share a unique 12-bp deletion in the coding region of DRD4, outside the repeat-unit segment of the gene [31].
  • DEFA1 appeared to be at high copy number in all great apes studied; at one variable site in the repeat unit, both variants have persisted in humans, chimpanzees and gorillas since their divergence [32].
  • The organization of the Hp and Hpr genes in chimpanzees is the same as in humans, including a retrovirus-like sequence in the first intron of Hpr [33].
  • Whereas only one KIR2DL4 molecule is detected in humans and chimpanzees, two distinct KIR2DL4 homologues were identified in the monkeys [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pan troglodytes

  • A modified ELISA was used to measure immunoreactivity of sera from clinical posttransfusion cases and experimentally infected chimpanzees [35].
  • Interestingly, in contrast to the situation found in infected humans, Fas ligation by agonistic Abs or recombinant human Fas ligand on CD4 and CD8 T cells from infected chimpanzees did not induce apoptosis in these subsets even when Bcl-2 was down-regulated [36].
  • SIVcpz infection was confirmed in five chimpanzees by PCR amplification of partial pol and gp41/nef sequences which revealed a diverse group of viruses that formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpzPts radiation [37].
  • SFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, but not IgA antibodies, against the Gag and Bet proteins were detected, by Western blotting, in all sample types from infected humans and chimpanzees [38].
  • Southern blot analysis with an exon 7-specific probe suggested that gorillas have more than two RH genes, as has recently been reported for chimpanzees [39].


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  2. Protection of chimpanzees from infection by HIV-1 after vaccination with recombinant glycoprotein gp120 but not gp160. Berman, P.W., Gregory, T.J., Riddle, L., Nakamura, G.R., Champe, M.A., Porter, J.P., Wurm, F.M., Hershberg, R.D., Cobb, E.K., Eichberg, J.W. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Patr-A and B, the orthologues of HLA-A and B, present hepatitis C virus epitopes to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells from two chronically infected chimpanzees. Kowalski, H., Erickson, A.L., Cooper, S., Domena, J.D., Parham, P., Walker, C.M. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  5. A receptor for polymerized human and chimpanzee albumins on hepatitis B virus particles co-occurring with HBeAg. Imai, M., Yanase, Y., Nojiri, T., Miyakawa, Y., Mayumi, M. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. The 200- and 150-kDa neurofilament proteins react with IgG autoantibodies from chimpanzees with kuru or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; a 62-kDa neurofilament-associated protein reacts with sera from sheep with natural scrapie. Toh, B.H., Gibbs, C.J., Gajdusek, D.C., Tuthill, D.D., Dahl, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. HIV-1 Vpr increases viral expression by manipulation of the cell cycle: a mechanism for selection of Vpr in vivo. Goh, W.C., Rogel, M.E., Kinsey, C.M., Michael, S.F., Fultz, P.N., Nowak, M.A., Hahn, B.H., Emerman, M. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  9. HLA-A and B polymorphisms predate the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. Lawlor, D.A., Ward, F.E., Ennis, P.D., Jackson, A.P., Parham, P. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Asymmetry of chimpanzee planum temporale: humanlike pattern of Wernicke's brain language area homolog. Gannon, P.J., Holloway, R.L., Broadfield, D.C., Braun, A.R. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: infectious virus cannot be detected in patient serum after permanent responses to treatment. Scullard, G.H., Greenberg, H.B., Smith, J.L., Gregory, P.B., Merigan, T.C., Robinson, W.S. Hepatology (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Pentoxifylline attenuates neutrophil activation in experimental endotoxemia in chimpanzees. van Leenen, D., van der Poll, T., Levi, M., ten Cate, H., van Deventer, S.J., Hack, C.E., Aarden, L.A., ten Cate, J.W. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential selection of specific human immunodeficiency virus type 1/JC499 variants after mucosal and parenteral inoculation of chimpanzees. Wei, Q., Fultz, P.N. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Persistent non-A, non-B hepatitis in experimentally infected chimpanzees. Bradley, D.W., Maynard, J.E., Popper, H., Ebert, J.W., Cook, E.H., Fields, H.A., Kemler, B.J. J. Infect. Dis. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Inactivation of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B viruses by combined use of Tween 80, beta-propiolactone, and ultraviolet irradiation. Prince, A.M., Stephan, W., Kotitschke, R., Brotman, B. Thromb. Haemost. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence for an ancient selective sweep in the MHC class I gene repertoire of chimpanzees. de Groot, N.G., Otting, N., Doxiadis, G.G., Balla-Jhagjhoorsingh, S.S., Heeney, J.L., van Rood, J.J., Gagneux, P., Bontrop, R.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Natural selection on the olfactory receptor gene family in humans and chimpanzees. Gilad, Y., Bustamante, C.D., Lancet, D., Pääbo, S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. High levels of Y-chromosome nucleotide diversity in the genus Pan. Stone, A.C., Griffiths, R.C., Zegura, S.L., Hammer, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro by serum from HIV-1-infected and passively immunized chimpanzees. Robinson, W.E., Montefiori, D.C., Mitchell, W.M., Prince, A.M., Alter, H.J., Dreesman, G.R., Eichberg, J.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of cellular immunity in chimpanzees to human tumor-associated antigen mucin by vaccination with MUC-1 cDNA-transfected Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized autologous B cells. Pecher, G., Finn, O.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Vaccination of chimpanzees against infection by the hepatitis C virus. Choo, Q.L., Kuo, G., Ralston, R., Weiner, A., Chien, D., Van Nest, G., Han, J., Berger, K., Thudium, K., Kuo, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Detection of widespread hepatocyte infection in chronic hepatitis C. Agnello, V., Abel, G., Knight, G.B., Muchmore, E. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus afarensis and early Homo. Ungar, P. J. Hum. Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Neurochemical organization of chimpanzee inferior pulvinar complex. Cola, M.G., Seltzer, B., Preuss, T.M., Cusick, C.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Protection of the infant thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide. An experimental evaluation in chimpanzees. Noteboom, J.L., Hummel, W.A., Broerse, J.J., de Vijlder, J.J., Vulsma, T., van Bekkum, D.W. Radiat. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. The activation of factor X and prothrombin by recombinant factor VIIa in vivo is mediated by tissue factor. ten Cate, H., Bauer, K.A., Levi, M., Edgington, T.S., Sublett, R.D., Barzegar, S., Kass, B.L., Rosenberg, R.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Detection of reverse transcriptase activity in association with the non-A, non-B hepatitis agent(s). Seto, B., Coleman, W.G., Iwarson, S., Gerety, R.J. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization epitope with conserved architecture elicits early type-specific antibodies in experimentally infected chimpanzees. Goudsmit, J., Debouck, C., Meloen, R.H., Smit, L., Bakker, M., Asher, D.M., Wolff, A.V., Gibbs, C.J., Gajdusek, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Detection of intrahepatic replication of hepatitis C virus RNA by in situ hybridization and comparison with histopathology. Negro, F., Pacchioni, D., Shimizu, Y., Miller, R.H., Bussolati, G., Purcell, R.H., Bonino, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Neuropathology and apolipoprotein E profile of aged chimpanzees: implications for Alzheimer disease. Gearing, M., Rebeck, G.W., Hyman, B.T., Tigges, J., Mirra, S.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Variability of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene sequence within and among nonhuman primate species. Livak, K.J., Rogers, J., Lichter, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Copy number polymorphism and expression level variation of the human alpha-defensin genes DEFA1 and DEFA3. Aldred, P.M., Hollox, E.J., Armour, J.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Complex events in the evolution of the haptoglobin gene cluster in primates. McEvoy, S.M., Maeda, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Diversity of the killer cell Ig-like receptors of rhesus monkeys. Hershberger, K.L., Shyam, R., Miura, A., Letvin, N.L. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Interaction of immune sera with synthetic peptides corresponding to the structural protein region of hepatitis C virus. Ching, W.M., Wychowski, C., Beach, M.J., Wang, H., Davies, C.L., Carl, M., Bradley, D.W., Alter, H.J., Feinstone, S.M., Shih, J.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Lack of chronic immune activation in HIV-infected chimpanzees correlates with the resistance of T cells to Fas/Apo-1 (CD95)-induced apoptosis and preservation of a T helper 1 phenotype. Gougeon, M.L., Lecoeur, H., Boudet, F., Ledru, E., Marzabal, S., Boullier, S., Roué, R., Nagata, S., Heeney, J. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Foci of endemic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Santiago, M.L., Lukasik, M., Kamenya, S., Li, Y., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Bailes, E., Muller, M.N., Emery, M., Goldenberg, D.A., Lwanga, J.S., Ayouba, A., Nerrienet, E., McClure, H.M., Heeney, J.L., Watts, D.P., Pusey, A.E., Collins, D.A., Wrangham, R.W., Goodall, J., Brookfield, J.F., Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., Hahn, B.H. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Mucosal and systemic antibody responses in humans infected with simian foamy virus. Cummins, J.E., Boneva, R.S., Switzer, W.M., Christensen, L.L., Sandstrom, P., Heneine, W., Chapman, L.E., Dezzutti, C.S. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Investigation of the RH locus in gorillas and chimpanzees. Westhoff, C.M., Wylie, D.E. J. Mol. Evol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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