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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tonsil


Psychiatry related information on Tonsil


High impact information on Tonsil


Chemical compound and disease context of Tonsil


Biological context of Tonsil


Anatomical context of Tonsil


Associations of Tonsil with chemical compounds


Gene context of Tonsil

  • In the binding assays, the numbers of FDCs bound to fibronectin- and laminin-coated dishes and LFs of cryostat sections of human tonsils were reduced markedly by pretreatment with monoclonal antibodies against CD29, CD49e, and CD49f [32].
  • Functional markers of Treg activity (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, TGF-beta, and CD80) were markedly increased in the tonsils of untreated patients [33].
  • Previous studies indicated that EBI3 is expressed in the spleen and tonsils, and at high levels in full-term placenta [34].
  • Furthermore, HOXC5 expression was consistently absent in reactive cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates, hyperplastic tonsils and lymph nodes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes either unstimulated or stimulated by a cocktail of CD3 and CD28 antibodies [35].
  • Extrafollicular cells expressing CCL21 and CCL24 were again more frequent in tonsils than in LNs from adults [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tonsil


  1. Tangier disease: a structural defect in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I Tangier). Kay, L.L., Ronan, R., Schaefer, E.J., Brewer, H.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Frequent expression of interleukin-10 by Epstein-Barr virus-harboring tumor cells of Hodgkin's disease. Herbst, H., Foss, H.D., Samol, J., Araujo, I., Klotzbach, H., Krause, H., Agathanggelou, A., Niedobitek, G., Stein, H. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type-1 variant strains in both malignant and benign EBV-associated disorders. Schuster, V., Ott, G., Seidenspinner, S., Kreth, H.W. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Telomerase activation in normal B lymphocytes and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Norrback, K.F., Dahlenborg, K., Carlsson, R., Roos, G. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Overexpression of the NOTCH ligand JAG2 in malignant plasma cells from multiple myeloma patients and cell lines. Houde, C., Li, Y., Song, L., Barton, K., Zhang, Q., Godwin, J., Nand, S., Toor, A., Alkan, S., Smadja, N.V., Avet-Loiseau, H., Lima, C.S., Miele, L., Coignet, L.J. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Detection of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infectivity in extraneural tissues. Bruce, M.E., McConnell, I., Will, R.G., Ironside, J.W. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. CXC chemokine receptor 5 expression defines follicular homing T cells with B cell helper function. Schaerli, P., Willimann, K., Lang, A.B., Lipp, M., Loetscher, P., Moser, B. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Selective recruitment of immature and mature dendritic cells by distinct chemokines expressed in different anatomic sites. Dieu, M.C., Vanbervliet, B., Vicari, A., Bridon, J.M., Oldham, E., Aït-Yahia, S., Brière, F., Zlotnik, A., Lebecque, S., Caux, C. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. The enigmatic plasmacytoid T cells develop into dendritic cells with interleukin (IL)-3 and CD40-ligand. Grouard, G., Rissoan, M.C., Filgueira, L., Durand, I., Banchereau, J., Liu, Y.J. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Engaging CD19 or target of an antiproliferative antibody 1 on human B lymphocytes induces binding of B cells to the interfollicular stroma of human tonsils via integrin alpha 4/beta 1 and fibronectin. Behr, S., Schriever, F. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. ABC1: connecting yellow tonsils, neuropathy, and very low HDL. Hobbs, H.H., Rader, D.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase activity in normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes. Scher, N.S., Quagliata, F., Malathi, V.G., Faig, D., Melton, R.A., Silber, R. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Failure of tonsil and nose surgery in adults with long-standing severe sleep apnea syndrome. Aubert-Tulkens, G., Hamoir, M., Van den Eeckhaut, J., Rodenstein, D.O. Arch. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Studies on the regulation and localization of 5-lipoxygenase in human B-lymphocytes. Jakobsson, P.J., Shaskin, P., Larsson, P., Feltenmark, S., Odlander, B., Aguilar-Santelises, M., Jondal, M., Biberfeld, P., Claesson, H.E. Eur. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. The "small, dark tonsil" in patients presenting with metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy from an unknown primary. Jumper, J.R., Fischbein, N.J., Kaplan, M.J., Klein, H.Z., Dillon, W.P. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Rapid clearance of SAG-2 rabies virus from dogs after oral vaccination. Orciari, L.A., Niezgoda, M., Hanlon, C.A., Shaddock, J.H., Sanderlin, D.W., Yager, P.A., Rupprecht, C.E. Vaccine (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of cytokine receptors on follicular dendritic cells. Yamada, K., Yamakawa, M., Imai, Y., Tsukamoto, M. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning and characterization of chicken IL-10 and its role in the immune response to Eimeria maxima. Rothwell, L., Young, J.R., Zoorob, R., Whittaker, C.A., Hesketh, P., Archer, A., Smith, A.L., Kaiser, P. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Macrophages expressing triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 are underrepresented in the human intestine. Schenk, M., Bouchon, A., Birrer, S., Colonna, M., Mueller, C. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The chemokines CCL11, CCL20, CCL21, and CCL24 are preferentially expressed in polarized human secondary lymphoid follicles. Buri, C., Gutersohn, A., Hauser, C., Kappeler, A., Mueller, C. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. IgD class switching: identification of a novel recombination site in neoplastic and normal B cells. Kluin, P.M., Kayano, H., Zani, V.J., Kluin-Nelemans, H.C., Tucker, P.W., Satterwhite, E., Dyer, M.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Autoimmune glomerulonephritis with spontaneous formation of splenic germinal centers in mice lacking the estrogen receptor alpha gene. Shim, G.J., Kis, L.L., Warner, M., Gustafsson, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. The microenvironment of human Peyer's patches inhibits the increase in CD38 expression associated with the germinal center reaction. Guilliano, M.J., Foxx-Orenstein, A.E., Lebman, D.A. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Specific neurobehavioral profile of Williams' syndrome is associated with neocerebellar hemispheric preservation. Wang, P.P., Hesselink, J.R., Jernigan, T.L., Doherty, S., Bellugi, U. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Paired synovium and lymph nodes from rheumatoid arthritis patients differ in dendritic cell and chemokine expression. Page, G., Miossec, P. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Differences in effect of isoproterenol stimulation on levels of cyclic AMP in human B and T lymphocytes. Niaudet, P., Beaurain, G., Bach, M.A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Roxithromycin disposition in tonsils after single and repeated administrations. Galioto, G.B., Ortisi, G., Mevio, E., Sassella, D., Bartucci, F., Privitera, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation of bacterial interference and beta-lactamase production in management of experimental infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Brook, I., Gilmore, J.D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Lymphocyte chemokinetic factors derived from human tonsils: modulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). McFadden, R.G., Vickers, K.E., Fraher, L.J. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. The effect of pre-incisional infiltration of tonsils with bupivacaine on the pain following tonsillectomy under general anesthesia. Jebeles, J.A., Reilly, J.S., Gutierrez, J.F., Bradley, E.L., Kissin, I. Pain (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunocytochemical detection of cyclin A and cyclin D in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues: novel, pertinent markers of cell proliferation. Bodey, B., Williams, R.T., Carbonaro-Hall, D.A., Horvath, A., Tolo, V.T., Luck, J.V., Taylor, C.R., Hall, F.L. Mod. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Follicular dendritic cells adhere to fibronectin and laminin fibers via their respective receptors. Ogata, T., Yamakawa, M., Imai, Y., Takahashi, T. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. The prevalence of regulatory T cells in lymphoid tissue is correlated with viral load in HIV-infected patients. Andersson, J., Boasso, A., Nilsson, J., Zhang, R., Shire, N.J., Lindback, S., Shearer, G.M., Chougnet, C.A. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3, an interleukin-12 p40-related molecule, throughout human pregnancy: involvement of syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts. Devergne, O., Coulomb-L'Herminé, A., Capel, F., Moussa, M., Capron, F. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. HOXC4, HOXC5, and HOXC6 expression in primary cutaneous lymphoid lesions. High expression of HOXC5 in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. Bijl, J.J., Rieger, E., van Oostveen, J.W., Walboomers, J.M., Kreike, M., Willemze, R., Meijer, C.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. BCL2 protein expression parallels its mRNA level in normal and malignant B cells. Shen, Y., Iqbal, J., Huang, J.Z., Zhou, G., Chan, W.C. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Immunohistologic localization and immune phenotypes of lymphocytes expressing Tac antigen in human lymphoid tissues. Miyawaki, T., Ohzeki, S., Ikuta, N., Seki, H., Taga, K., Taniguchi, N. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  38. Fas ligand expression in the germinal centre. Verbeke, C.S., Wenthe, U., Zentgraf, H. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Three new human members of the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide binding protein family (LT/LBP). Mulero, J.J., Boyle, B.J., Bradley, S., Bright, J.M., Nelken, S.T., Ho, T.T., Mize, N.K., Childs, J.D., Ballinger, D.G., Ford, J.E., Rupp, F. Immunogenetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Transient transfection of murine B lymphocyte blasts as a method for examining gene regulation in primary B cells. McMahon, S.B., Norvell, A., Levine, K.J., Monroe, J.G. J. Immunol. Methods (1995) [Pubmed]
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