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Gene Review

SH  -  SH

Human metapneumovirus

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Disease relevance of SH

  • Infection of nonhuman primates with recombinant human metapneumovirus lacking the SH, G, or M2-2 protein categorizes each as a nonessential accessory protein and identifies vaccine candidates [1].
  • Also, although the SH protein of HMPV is a virion protein that is much larger than its counterparts in previously studied paramyxoviruses, it does not appear to be a significant neutralization or protective antigen [2].
  • When the recombinant baculovirus was used to infect insect cells, a 31- to 38-kDa glycosylated form of the SH protein was produced and subsequently tested for reactivity with antibodies specific for APV/A, APV/B, APV/C, and hMPV [3].
  • Four new nested PCR tests were designed in the fusion (F) protein (2 tests), small hydrophobic (SH) protein (1 test), and nucleocapsid (N) protein (1 test) genes and compared with an established test in the attachment (G) protein gene [4].

High impact information on SH


Chemical compound and disease context of SH

  • Comparison of the aMPV/C SH, G, and L nt and predicted aa sequences with those of Human metapneumoviruses (hMPV) revealed higher nt and aa sequence identities than the sequence identities between the aMPV subtypes A, B, C, and D, supporting earlier finding that aMPV/C was closer evolutionary to hMPV than the other aMPV subtypes [8].

Biological context of SH

  • The A and B subtypes of aMPV had predicted amino acid sequence identities for the SH protein of 47%, and less than 20% with that of hMPV [9].
  • The SH gene of APV/CO was cloned using a genomic walk strategy which initiated cDNA synthesis from genomic RNA that traversed the genes in the order 3'-M-F-M2-SH-G-5', thus confirming that gene-order of APV/CO conforms in the genus Metapneumovirus [10].

Anatomical context of SH

  • Replacement of the full-length wild-type antigenome with one lacking the small hydrophobic (SH) protein and the attachment (G) genes generated a virus that grew more slowly and produced atypical CPE with syncytia much larger than those seen with wild-type virus [7].

Other interactions of SH


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SH

  • Thus, the SH and G proteins are not essential for growth in cell culture [5].
  • Western blot analysis showed that the expressed recombinant SH protein could only be recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies [3].
  • This finding indicated that the recombinant SH protein was a suitable antigen for ELISA-based detection of subgroup-specific antibodies in turkeys and could be used for serologically based differential diagnosis of APV and hMPV infections [3].
  • A recombinant SH protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and it further confirmed the lack of reactivity of this protein with antisera raised to APV/A, APV/B, and hMPV and supported its designation as a subgroup-specific antigen [3].


  1. Infection of nonhuman primates with recombinant human metapneumovirus lacking the SH, G, or M2-2 protein categorizes each as a nonessential accessory protein and identifies vaccine candidates. Biacchesi, S., Pham, Q.N., Skiadopoulos, M.H., Murphy, B.R., Collins, P.L., Buchholz, U.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Individual contributions of the human metapneumovirus F, G, and SH surface glycoproteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. Skiadopoulos, M.H., Biacchesi, S., Buchholz, U.J., Amaro-Carambot, E., Surman, S.R., Collins, P.L., Murphy, B.R. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of recombinant small hydrophobic protein for serospecific detection of avian pneumovirus subgroup C. Luo, L., Sabara, M.I., Li, Y. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Design, validation, and absolute sensitivity of a novel test for the molecular detection of avian pneumovirus. Cecchinato, M., Catelli, E., Savage, C.E., Jones, R.C., Naylor, C.J. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Recombinant human Metapneumovirus lacking the small hydrophobic SH and/or attachment G glycoprotein: deletion of G yields a promising vaccine candidate. Biacchesi, S., Skiadopoulos, M.H., Yang, L., Lamirande, E.W., Tran, K.C., Murphy, B.R., Collins, P.L., Buchholz, U.J. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic variability of human metapneumovirus infection: evidence of a shift in viral genotype without a change in illness. Agapov, E., Sumino, K.C., Gaudreault-Keener, M., Storch, G.A., Holtzman, M.J. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Development of a reverse-genetics system for Avian pneumovirus demonstrates that the small hydrophobic (SH) and attachment (G) genes are not essential for virus viability. Naylor, C.J., Brown, P.A., Edworthy, N., Ling, R., Jones, R.C., Savage, C.E., Easton, A.J. J. Gen. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparison of the full-length genome sequence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C with other paramyxoviruses. Lwamba, H.C., Alvarez, R., Wise, M.G., Yu, Q., Halvorson, D., Njenga, M.K., Seal, B.S. Virus Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Subtype B avian metapneumovirus resembles subtype A more closely than subtype C or human metapneumovirus with respect to the phosphoprotein, and second matrix and small hydrophobic proteins. Jacobs, J.A., Njenga, M.K., Alvarez, R., Mawditt, K., Britton, P., Cavanagh, D., Seal, B.S. Virus Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Deduced amino acid sequence of the small hydrophobic protein of US avian pneumovirus has greater identity with that of human metapneumovirus than those of non-US avian pneumoviruses. Yunus, A.S., Govindarajan, D., Huang, Z., Samal, S.K. Virus Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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