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Gene Review

Csta  -  cystatin A (stefin A)

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Cystatin-A, Cystatin-alpha, Epidermal stefin, Epidermal thiol proteinase inhibitor
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Disease relevance of Csta_predicted


High impact information on Csta_predicted

  • Lysine-rich phosphorylated cystatin alpha (P-cystatin alpha) from newborn rat epidermis is a good substrate for epidermal transglutaminase (TGase) and also one of the component proteins of cornified envelope in the stratum corneum [5].
  • Serum calcium in rats placed on a low calcium diet was decreased by treatment of E-64 or cystatin A, but not by CA-074 [6].
  • Thus phosphorylation of cystatin alpha by protein kinase C may play an important role in targeting cystatin alpha into KHG [7].
  • Treatment of sphingosine, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C, markedly suppressed the incorporation of cystatin alpha into KHG [7].
  • The incorporation increased dose-dependently with the added cystatin alpha and was inhibited significantly by H-7, a specific inhibitor of PKC [8].

Biological context of Csta_predicted


Anatomical context of Csta_predicted


Associations of Csta_predicted with chemical compounds

  • Evidence of protease activity producing NH2-terminal truncated form of rat cystatin A in newborn rat epidermis [12].
  • The pI 4.7, 14.5 kDa hematoxylin-stainable protein (HSP) from rat epidermis inhibited the activities of the cysteine proteinases papain, ficin, cathepsins B, H and L with similar inhibitory characteristics as recombinant cystatin-alpha [13].
  • When phosphorylated cystatin alpha (P-cystatin alpha) was incubated with epidermal transglutaminase (TGase) and Ca2+ ions, polymerized protein was produced by formation of epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine cross-linking peptide bonds between lysine residues of cystatin alpha and glutamine residues of suitable protein(s) in the enzyme preparation [7].
  • Furthermore, 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP was incorporated into recombinant cystatin alpha by a protein kinase C (PKC) preparation in the presence of phosphatidyl serine and Ca2+ ions as co-factors [8].
  • The inactivation and degradation of L-lactate dehydrogenase by this partially purified enzyme were all markedly suppressed by a low level of cystatin alpha without inhibiting the activities of both cathepsins B and L [14].

Regulatory relationships of Csta_predicted


Other interactions of Csta_predicted


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Csta_predicted


  1. Inhibition of growth and cysteine proteinase activity of Staphylococcus aureus V8 by phosphorylated cystatin alpha in skin cornified envelope. Takahashi, M., Tezuka, T., Katunuma, N. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Incorporation and degradation by kidney lysosomes of cystatin alpha injected intravenously. Ohshita, T., Ike, Y., Katunuma, N. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of cysteine protease and growth of Staphylococcus aureus V8 and poliovirus by phosphorylated cystatin alpha conjugate of skin. Takahashi, M., Tezuka, T., Korant, B., Katunuma, N. Biofactors (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Cystatin A expression reduces bile salt-induced apoptosis in a rat hepatoma cell line. Jones, B., Roberts, P.J., Faubion, W.A., Kominami, E., Gores, G.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Linkage between phosphorylated cystatin alpha and filaggrin by epidermal transglutaminase as a model of cornified envelope and inhibition of cathepsin L activity by cornified envelope and the conjugated cystatin alpha. Takahashi, M., Tezuka, T., Kakegawa, H., Katunuma, N. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Participation of cathepsin L on bone resorption. Kakegawa, H., Nikawa, T., Tagami, K., Kamioka, H., Sumitani, K., Kawata, T., Drobnic-Kosorok, M., Lenarcic, B., Turk, V., Katunuma, N. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Phosphorylated cystatin alpha is a natural substrate of epidermal transglutaminase for formation of skin cornified envelope. Takahashi, M., Tezuka, T., Katunuma, N. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of hematoxylin-stainable protein in epidermal keratohyalin granules as phosphorylated cystatin alpha by protein kinase C. Takahashi, M., Tezuka, T., Towatari, T., Katunuma, N. FEBS Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Amino acid sequence of rat epidermal thiol proteinase inhibitor. Takio, K., Kominami, E., Bando, Y., Katunuma, N., Titani, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning, enhancement of expression efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis of rat epidermal cystatin A. Kaji, H., Yada-Wakatabe, R., Uehira, T., Terai, M., Takeda, A., Satoh, T., Samejima, T. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Increase of cyclin B by overexpression of cystatin alpha. Hiwasa, T., Ma, J., Ike, Y., Katunuma, N., Sakiyama, S. Cell Biochem. Funct. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence of protease activity producing NH2-terminal truncated form of rat cystatin A in newborn rat epidermis. Takeda, A., Nakamura, Y., Kaji, H., Samejima, T. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Properties and nature of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor located in keratohyalin granules of rat epidermis. Takahashi, M., Tezuka, T., Towatari, T., Katunuma, N. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Involvement of a cystatin-alpha-sensitive cysteine proteinase in the degradation of native L-lactate dehydrogenase and serum albumin by rat liver or kidney lysosomes. Ohshita, T., Kido, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Biochemical properties of thiol proteinase inhibitor purified from psoriatic scales. Ohtani, O., Fukuyama, K., Epstein, W.L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Filaggrin linker segment peptide and cystatin alpha are parts of a complex of the cornified envelope of epidermis. Takahashi, M., Tezuka, T., Katunuma, N. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1996) [Pubmed]
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