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Gene Review

Tgm1  -  transglutaminase 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Epidermal TGase, Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase K, TG(K), TGK, TGase K, ...
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Disease relevance of Tgm1


Psychiatry related information on Tgm1

  • We recently found that alternative transcripts of tissue transglutaminase (tTG or TG2) were present in hippocampal brain regions of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not in control, non-demented, age-matched brains [5].

High impact information on Tgm1


Chemical compound and disease context of Tgm1


Biological context of Tgm1


Anatomical context of Tgm1


Associations of Tgm1 with chemical compounds

  • Similarly, transglutaminase activity and epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl) lysine were also predominately located within glomeruli and were much more intense in the PAN-injected group than that in control animals [19].
  • Transglutaminase was effective in promoting the binding of spermidine to the sperm [15].
  • Tissue homogenates showed no significant change in overall transglutaminase activity (14C putrescine incorporation assay) unless adjusted for the loss of viable tubule cells, when an increase from 5.77+/-0.35 to 13.93+/-4.21 U/mg DNA in cytosolic tissue transglutaminase activity was seen [1].
  • Transglutaminase, reduced in the colons of the saline group (783 +/- 157 vs. normal 1800 +/- 192 mU/g; P < 0.01), returned toward normal values in the sodium butyrate or sodium butyrate plus mesalamine groups (1390 +/- 228 and 1226 +/- 172 mU/g, respectively; P < 0.01 vs. saline) [2].
  • Electrophilic metabolites may stimulate apoptosis by decreasing thiols, increasing [Ca2+], and activating Ca(2+)-dependent transglutaminase and endonucleases [20].

Physical interactions of Tgm1


Regulatory relationships of Tgm1


Other interactions of Tgm1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tgm1


  1. The role of transglutaminase in the rat subtotal nephrectomy model of renal fibrosis. Johnson, T.S., Griffin, M., Thomas, G.L., Skill, J., Cox, A., Yang, B., Nicholas, B., Birckbichler, P.J., Muchaneta-Kubara, C., Meguid El Nahas, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Butyrate, mesalamine, and factor XIII in experimental colitis in the rat: effects on transglutaminase activity. D'Argenio, G., Cosenza, V., Sorrentini, I., De Ritis, F., Gatto, A., Delle Cave, M., D'Armiento, F.P., Mazzacca, G. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Troponin I degradation and covalent complex formation accompanies myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. McDonough, J.L., Arrell, D.K., Van Eyk, J.E. Circ. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Differential transglutaminase distribution in normal rat liver and rat hepatoma. Birckbichler, P.J., Orr, G.R., Patterson, M.K. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Injury-induced "switch" from GTP-regulated to novel GTP-independent isoform of tissue transglutaminase in the rat spinal cord. Festoff, B.W., SantaCruz, K., Arnold, P.M., Sebastian, C.T., Davies, P.J., Citron, B.A. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Transglutaminase is essential in receptor-mediated endocytosis of alpha 2-macroglobulin and polypeptide hormones. Davies, P.J., Davies, D.R., Levitzki, A., Maxfield, F.R., Milhaud, P., Willingham, M.C., Pastan, I.H. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Recovery of visual response of injured adult rat optic nerves treated with transglutaminase. Eitan, S., Solomon, A., Lavie, V., Yoles, E., Hirschberg, D.L., Belkin, M., Schwartz, M. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Gh: a GTP-binding protein with transglutaminase activity and receptor signaling function. Nakaoka, H., Perez, D.M., Baek, K.J., Das, T., Husain, A., Misono, K., Im, M.J., Graham, R.M. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Butyrate enemas in experimental colitis and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model. D'Argenio, G., Cosenza, V., Delle Cave, M., Iovino, P., Delle Valle, N., Lombardi, G., Mazzacca, G. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Covalent modification of synapsin I by a tetanus toxin-activated transglutaminase. Facchiano, F., Benfenati, F., Valtorta, F., Luini, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased nuclear conjugated polyamines and transglutaminase during liver regeneration. Haddox, M.K., Russell, D.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of apoptosis by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in the rat hepatoma cell line McA-RH7777: a possible association with tissue transglutaminase expression. Fukuda, K., Kojiro, M., Chiu, J.F. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Tissue transglutaminase is expressed, active, and directly involved in rat dermal wound healing and angiogenesis. Haroon, Z.A., Hettasch, J.M., Lai, T.S., Dewhirst, M.W., Greenberg, C.S. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Cytochrome P450-generated reactive metabolites cause mitochondrial permeability transition, caspase activation, and apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. Haouzi, D., Lekéhal, M., Moreau, A., Moulis, C., Feldmann, G., Robin, M.A., Lettéron, P., Fau, D., Pessayre, D. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Transglutaminase-mediated modifications of the rat sperm surface in vitro. Paonessa, G., Metafora, S., Tajana, G., Abrescia, P., De Santis, A., Gentile, V., Porta, R. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Transglutaminase in response to hypertonic NaCl-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Wang, J.Y., Viar, M.J., Johnson, L.R. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Direct involvement of p53 in programmed cell death of oligodendrocytes. Eizenberg, O., Faber-Elman, A., Gottlieb, E., Oren, M., Rotter, V., Schwartz, M. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Factor XIIIa as a nerve-associated transglutaminase. Monsonego, A., Mizrahi, T., Eitan, S., Moalem, G., Bárdos, H., Adány, R., Schwartz, M. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Increase in extracellular cross-linking by tissue transglutaminase and reduction in expression of MMP-9 contribute differentially to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in rats. Liu, S., Li, Y., Zhao, H., Chen, D., Huang, Q., Wang, S., Zou, W., Zhang, Y., Li, X., Huang, H. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Diterpenoids from germander, an herbal medicine, induce apoptosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Fau, D., Lekehal, M., Farrell, G., Moreau, A., Moulis, C., Feldmann, G., Haouzi, D., Pessayre, D. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Alpha 1B-adrenoceptor interacts with multiple sites of transglutaminase II: characteristics of the interaction in binding and activation. Feng, J.F., Gray, C.D., Im, M.J. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Calcium pretreatment induces the decrease in epidermal growth factor binding through the activation of transglutaminase in isolated liver membrane. Katoh, S., Hashimoto, M., Kohno, H., Ohkubo, Y. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Involvement of membrane-bound transglutaminase in the invagination of transferrin into rat reticulocyte plasma membrane. Katoh, S., Midorikami, J., Takasu, S., Ohkubo, Y. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Hepatocyte growth factor induces transglutaminase activity that negatively regulates the growth signal in primary cultured hepatocytes. Katoh, S., Nakagawa, N., Yano, Y., Satoh, K., Kohno, H., Ohkubo, Y., Suzuki, T., Kitani, K. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Calreticulin inhibits the MEK1,2-ERK1,2 pathway in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor/Gh-stimulated hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Lee, K.H., Lee, N., Lim, S., Jung, H., Ko, Y.G., Park, H.Y., Jang, Y., Lee, H., Hwang, K.C. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Epidermal G1-chalone and transforming growth factor-beta are two different endogenous inhibitors of epidermal cell proliferation. Richter, K.H., Schnapke, R., Clauss, M., Fürstenberger, G., Hinz, D., Marks, F. J. Cell. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Cyclosporine inhibits prolactin induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat tissues. Russell, D.H., Larson, D.F., Cardon, S.B., Copeland, J.G. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Structural characterization of the rat seminal vesicle secretion II protein and gene. Harris, S.E., Harris, M.A., Johnson, C.M., Bean, M.F., Dodd, J.G., Matusik, R.J., Carr, S.A., Crabb, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Cellular transglutaminase. Lung matrix-associated transglutaminase: characterization and activation with sulfhydryls. Cocuzzi, E.T., Chung, S.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Transglutaminase transcription and antigen translocation in experimental renal scarring. Johnson, T.S., Skill, N.J., El Nahas, A.M., Oldroyd, S.D., Thomas, G.L., Douthwaite, J.A., Haylor, J.L., Griffin, M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Calcium-dependent transglutaminase of rat sympathetic ganglion in development and after nerve injury. Gilad, G.M., Varon, L.E., Gilad, V.H. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
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