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Gene Review

GZMH  -  granzyme H (cathepsin G-like 2, protein h...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CCP-X, CGL-2, CGL2, CSP-C, CTLA1, ...
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Disease relevance of GZMH


High impact information on GZMH

  • Alike mammalian galectin-1, a CGL-2 mutant defective in beta-galactoside binding, does not get exported from CHO cells [2].
  • Polymorphism of the CTLA1 gene on chromosome 14 [3].
  • The intervening sequences are much less conserved, except for introns 3 of the CGL-1 and CGL-2 genes, which are 93% identical [4].
  • CGL-2/h-CCPX is expressed at much lower levels in activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, LAK and NK cells [4].
  • Serum samples from these patients were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from volunteers in the presence or absence of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA) 4 immunoglobulin, a specific inhibitor of antigen-dependent T cell activation [5].

Biological context of GZMH

  • The gene order is centromere-T cell receptor alpha/delta-CGL-1/granzyme B-CGL-2/granzyme H-cathepsin G-chymase [6].
  • Along with direct repeats (TGGAAG/TGGAAG/GGAA), the sequence contains a CRE consensus site (cAMP-responsive element, TGCGTCA) suggesting the involvement of cAMP signaling in cgl2 activation [7].
  • In the homobasidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea, expression of the two fruiting body-specific galectins, CGL1 and CGL2, is controlled by nutrients, light and darkness and the A mating type genes [7].
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA) 4 gene is recognized as a primary determinant for autoimmunity since specific polymorphisms have been associated with predisposition to most autoimmune disorders [8].
  • Moreover, three putative phosphorylation sites at position 51 (CSPC), at position 90 (RTPL) and at position 265 (PSPF) were found in the TcEF-1 gamma sequence [9].

Anatomical context of GZMH


Associations of GZMH with chemical compounds

  • Characterization of a novel, human cytotoxic lymphocyte-specific serine protease cDNA clone (CSP-C) [10].

Other interactions of GZMH

  • Promoter analysis of cgl2, a galectin encoding gene transcribed during fruiting body formation in Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus) [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GZMH

  • In this study, we analyzed the promoter of the cgl2 gene by measuring transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR and show that regulation of CGL2 expression occurs at the transcriptional level [7].


  1. Comparison of clinically nonpalpable prostate-specific antigen-detected (cT1c) versus palpable (cT2) prostate cancers in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Ghavamian, R., Blute, M.L., Bergstralh, E.J., Slezak, J., Zincke, H. Urology (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell surface counter receptors are essential components of the unconventional export machinery of galectin-1. Seelenmeyer, C., Wegehingel, S., Tews, I., Künzler, M., Aebi, M., Nickel, W. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Polymorphism of the CTLA1 gene on chromosome 14. Nguyen, V., Haddad, P., Cox, D.W. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure and expression of a cluster of human hematopoietic serine protease genes found on chromosome 14q11.2. Heusel, J.W., Hanson, R.D., Silverman, G.A., Ley, T.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum antigen(s) drive the proinflammatory T cell response in acute pancreatitis. Sweeney, K.J., Kell, M.R., Coates, C., Murphy, T., Reynolds, J.V. The British journal of surgery. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The human mast cell chymase gene (CMA1): mapping to the cathepsin G/granzyme gene cluster and lineage-restricted expression. Caughey, G.H., Schaumberg, T.H., Zerweck, E.H., Butterfield, J.H., Hanson, R.D., Silverman, G.A., Ley, T.J. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Promoter analysis of cgl2, a galectin encoding gene transcribed during fruiting body formation in Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus). Bertossa, R.C., Kües, U., Aebi, M., Künzler, M. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Variants of the CTLA4 gene that segregate with autoimmune diseases are not associated with endometriosis. Viganó, P., Lattuada, D., Somigliana, E., Abbiati, A., Candiani, M., Di Blasio, A.M. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular and immunological characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi protein homologous to mammalian elongation factor 1 gamma. Billaut-Mulot, O., Schöneck, R., Fernandez-Gomez, R., Taibi, A., Capron, A., Pommier, V., Plumas-Marty, B., Loyens, M., Ouaissi, A. Biol. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a novel, human cytotoxic lymphocyte-specific serine protease cDNA clone (CSP-C). Klein, J.L., Selvakumar, A., Trapani, J.A., Dupont, B. Tissue Antigens (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Phenotypic heterogeneity in body fat distribution in patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy caused by mutations in the AGPAT2 or seipin genes. Simha, V., Garg, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
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