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Gene Review

bmp2b  -  bone morphogenetic protein 2b

Danio rerio

Synonyms: SO:0000704, bmp-2, bmp2, bmp2-4, cb670, ...
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High impact information on bmp2b

  • These results implicate shh and bmp2b signaling in the proliferation and/or differentiation of specialized bone-secreting cells in the blastema and suggest shh expression may be controlled by regulatory feedback mechanisms that define the region of bone secretion in the outgrowing fin [1].
  • Bone patterning is altered in the regenerating zebrafish caudal fin after ectopic expression of sonic hedgehog and bmp2b or exposure to cyclopamine [1].
  • This indicates that pou2 acts upstream of Alk8, a maternally provided receptor implicated in the activation of zygotic bmp2b and bmp4 transcription [2].
  • Using a genetic interference approach we further identify bmp2b and bmp5 as crucial components of the endodermal signals that induce epibranchial neurogenesis [3].
  • We propose that early transcriptional repression of bmp2b by Boz is one of the first steps toward formation of a stable organizer, whereas the later-acting Bmp antagonists (e.g. Chordin, Noggin) modulate Bmp activity in the gastrula to induce patterning along the dorsoventral axis [4].

Biological context of bmp2b

  • Also, the dorsalized phenotype of bmp2b-mutant embryos can be rescued by exogenous Smad1, but not by Smad5 [5].
  • We identify two high-affinity binding sites for Boz within the first intron of the bmp2b gene [4].
  • Double mutant analyses and RNA injection experiments show that sbn and bmp2b interact and that sbn acts downstream of Bmp2b signaling to mediate Bmp2b autoregulation during early dorsoventral (D-V) pattern formation [6].
  • Based on the alterations in tissue-specific gene expression, we propose a model whereby swirl/bmp2b acts as a morphogen to specify different cell types along the dorsoventral axis [7].
  • Double mutant snailhouse/bmp7; swirl/bmp2b embryos do not exhibit additional or stronger dorsalized phenotypes, indicating that these Bmp ligands do not function redundantly in early embryonic development [8].

Anatomical context of bmp2b

  • Most importantly, Mm169(-/-) embryos display reducedbmp7 mRNA levels during blastula stages, when bmp2b and bmp7 mutants are still normal [9].
  • In the present study, we have used dorsalized swirl (bmp2b) and ventralized chordino (chordin) zebrafish mutants to investigate the effects of dorsoventral signalling on endoderm patterning and on the differentiation and positioning of its derivatives [10].
  • Examination of dorsally and ventrally restricted markers during gastrulation reveals a successive reduction and reciprocal expansion in nonneural and neural ectoderm, respectively, in snailhouse, somitabun, and swirl mutant embryos, with swirl/bmp2b mutants exhibiting almost no nonneural ectoderm [7].
  • Interestingly, our analysis suggests that the previously described nonneural/neural ectodermal interaction specifying the neural crest occurs through a patterning function of swirl/bmp2b during gastrulation [7].
  • In swirl/bmp2b(-) (swr(-)) embryos, laterally positioned sensory neurons are absent whereas more medial interneuron populations are hugely expanded [11].

Regulatory relationships of bmp2b


Other interactions of bmp2b

  • Forced expression of gata5 in swr/bmp2b and Zoep mutants restores robust nkx2.5 expression [13].
  • However, simultaneous knockdown of mini fin and bmp1 results in severe dorsalization resembling the Swirl (swr) and Snailhouse (snh) phenotypes; caused by defects in major zebrafish ventralizing genes bmp2b and bmp7, respectively [14].
  • In particular, increased levels of Bmp signalling in chordino gastrulae are associated with a markedly reduced her5 expression domain, that may be abolished by injecting bmp2b mRNA [10].
  • Here we show that in addition to bmp2b and bmp4 another family member, bmp6, is involved in fin regeneration [15].
  • A much stronger dorsalization, similar to that of bmp2b/swirl and bmp7/snailhouse mutants, however, is obtained by inhibiting both maternally and zygotically supplied alk8 gene products with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of bmp2b


  1. Bone patterning is altered in the regenerating zebrafish caudal fin after ectopic expression of sonic hedgehog and bmp2b or exposure to cyclopamine. Quint, E., Smith, A., Avaron, F., Laforest, L., Miles, J., Gaffield, W., Akimenko, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Maternal control of vertebrate dorsoventral axis formation and epiboly by the POU domain protein Spg/Pou2/Oct4. Reim, G., Brand, M. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirements for endoderm and BMP signaling in sensory neurogenesis in zebrafish. Holzschuh, J., Wada, N., Wada, C., Schaffer, A., Javidan, Y., Tallafuss, A., Bally-Cuif, L., Schilling, T.F. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. bozozok directly represses bmp2b transcription and mediates the earliest dorsoventral asymmetry of bmp2b expression in zebrafish. Leung, T., Bischof, J., Söll, I., Niessing, D., Zhang, D., Ma, J., Jäckle, H., Driever, W. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Smad1 and Smad5 have distinct roles during dorsoventral patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Dick, A., Meier, A., Hammerschmidt, M. Dev. Dyn. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. The smad5 mutation somitabun blocks Bmp2b signaling during early dorsoventral patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Hild, M., Dick, A., Rauch, G.J., Meier, A., Bouwmeester, T., Haffter, P., Hammerschmidt, M. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Ventral and lateral regions of the zebrafish gastrula, including the neural crest progenitors, are established by a bmp2b/swirl pathway of genes. Nguyen, V.H., Schmid, B., Trout, J., Connors, S.A., Ekker, M., Mullins, M.C. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Equivalent genetic roles for bmp7/snailhouse and bmp2b/swirl in dorsoventral pattern formation. Schmid, B., Fürthauer, M., Connors, S.A., Trout, J., Thisse, B., Thisse, C., Mullins, M.C. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Maternally supplied Smad5 is required for ventral specification in zebrafish embryos prior to zygotic Bmp signaling. Kramer, C., Mayr, T., Nowak, M., Schumacher, J., Runke, G., Bauer, H., Wagner, D.S., Schmid, B., Imai, Y., Talbot, W.S., Mullins, M.C., Hammerschmidt, M. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. BMP signalling regulates anteroposterior endoderm patterning in zebrafish. Tiso, N., Filippi, A., Pauls, S., Bortolussi, M., Argenton, F. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Bmp activity establishes a gradient of positional information throughout the entire neural plate. Barth, K.A., Kishimoto, Y., Rohr, K.B., Seydler, C., Schulte-Merker, S., Wilson, S.W. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish. Goutel, C., Kishimoto, Y., Schulte-Merker, S., Rosa, F. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Bmp2b and Oep promote early myocardial differentiation through their regulation of gata5. Reiter, J.F., Verkade, H., Stainier, D.Y. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. bmp1 and mini fin are functionally redundant in regulating formation of the zebrafish dorsoventral axis. Jasuja, R., Voss, N., Ge, G., Hoffman, G.G., Lyman-Gingerich, J., Pelegri, F., Greenspan, D.S. Mech. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of BMP signaling during zebrafish fin regeneration disrupts fin growth and scleroblast differentiation and function. Smith, A., Avaron, F., Guay, D., Padhi, B.K., Akimenko, M.A. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. The type I serine/threonine kinase receptor Alk8/Lost-a-fin is required for Bmp2b/7 signal transduction during dorsoventral patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Bauer, H., Lele, Z., Rauch, G.J., Geisler, R., Hammerschmidt, M. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of bmp2a and bmp2b in late-stage zebrafish median fin development. Crotwell, P.L., Sommervold, A.R., Mabee, P.M. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. In vivo analysis using variants of zebrafish BMPR-IA: range of action and involvement of BMP in ectoderm patterning. Nikaido, M., Tada, M., Takeda, H., Kuroiwa, A., Ueno, N. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
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