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Gene Review

shh  -  sonic hedgehog

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: Xhh, hedgehog, xshh
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High impact information on LOC398047

  • Xenopus blastula cells activate different mesodermal genes as a concentration-dependent response to activin, which behaves like a morphogen [1].
  • To understand how cells recognize morphogen concentration, we have bound naturally labeled activin to cells and related this to choice of gene activation [1].
  • During early Drosophila embryogenesis, several zygotic gene products act to establish a posttranscriptional activity gradient of the morphogen DPP [2].
  • The specification and patterning of cell fates by a morphogen gradient is a unifying theme of developmental biology, yet little evidence exists for the presence of gradients in vivo or to show how such putative gradients form [3].
  • Xbra therefore offers an excellent paradigm for studying the way in which a morphogen gradient is interpreted in vertebrate embryos [4].

Biological context of LOC398047


Anatomical context of LOC398047


Associations of LOC398047 with chemical compounds

  • This effect of retinoic acid, coupled with the known presence of retinoic acid in Xenopus embryos has led to the proposal that retinoic acid may be an endogenous morphogen providing positional information in early development [13].
  • Taken together, our results are consistent with a model in which Wnt- or lithium-mediated signals can induce either mesodermal or ectodermal cells to produce a dominant posteriorizing morphogen which respecifies anterior neural tissue as posterior [14].
  • The purpose of this study was to make an explicit test of the idea that a retinoid could act as a morphogen, differentially activating genes and specifying anteroposterior (a-p) level in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) [15].
  • Although closely mimicked by retinoic acid (RA), this substance is probably not itself the morphogen [16].
  • Immunohistochemical detection of serotonin is commonly used as a neuronal cell marker and to provide crucial information on serotonin's role as an embryonic morphogen [17].

Other interactions of LOC398047


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC398047


  1. The interpretation of position in a morphogen gradient as revealed by occupancy of activin receptors. Dyson, S., Gurdon, J.B. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Production of a DPP activity gradient in the early Drosophila embryo through the opposing actions of the SOG and TLD proteins. Marqués, G., Musacchio, M., Shimell, M.J., Wünnenberg-Stapleton, K., Cho, K.W., O'Connor, M.B. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Short-range signaling by candidate morphogens of the TGF beta family and evidence for a relay mechanism of induction. Reilly, K.M., Melton, D.A. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. The Xenopus Brachyury promoter is activated by FGF and low concentrations of activin and suppressed by high concentrations of activin and by paired-type homeodomain proteins. Latinkić, B.V., Umbhauer, M., Neal, K.A., Lerchner, W., Smith, J.C., Cunliffe, V. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Xenopus sonic hedgehog as a potential morphogen during embryogenesis and thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis. Stolow, M.A., Shi, Y.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A quantitative analysis of signal transduction from activin receptor to nucleus and its relevance to morphogen gradient interpretation. Shimizu, K., Gurdon, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Application of reaction-diffusion models to cell patterning in Xenopus retina. Initiation of patterns and their biological stability. Shoaf, S.A., Conway, K., Hunt, R.K. J. Theor. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila short gastrulation gene prevents Dpp from autoactivating and suppressing neurogenesis in the neuroectoderm. Biehs, B., François, V., Bier, E. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Active suppression of interneuron programs within developing motor neurons revealed by analysis of homeodomain factor HB9. Thaler, J., Harrison, K., Sharma, K., Lettieri, K., Kehrl, J., Pfaff, S.L. Neuron (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Negative regulation of Smad2 by PIASy is required for proper Xenopus mesoderm formation. Daniels, M., Shimizu, K., Zorn, A.M., Ohnuma, S. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. bFGF as a possible morphogen for the anteroposterior axis of the central nervous system in Xenopus. Kengaku, M., Okamoto, H. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Development of neural crest in Xenopus. Mayor, R., Young, R., Vargas, A. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. v-erbA and citral reduce the teratogenic effects of all-trans retinoic acid and retinol, respectively, in Xenopus embryogenesis. Schuh, T.J., Hall, B.L., Kraft, J.C., Privalsky, M.L., Kimelman, D. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Xwnt-8 and lithium can act upon either dorsal mesodermal or neurectodermal cells to cause a loss of forebrain in Xenopus embryos. Fredieu, J.R., Cui, Y., Maier, D., Danilchik, M.V., Christian, J.L. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Graded retinoid responses in the developing hindbrain. Godsave, S.F., Koster, C.H., Getahun, A., Mathu, M., Hooiveld, M., van der Wees, J., Hendriks, J., Durston, A.J. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Embryonic induction. Slack, J.M. Mech. Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. A novel immunohistochemical method for evaluation of antibody specificity and detection of labile targets in biological tissue. Levin, M. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Bmp-4 acts as a morphogen in dorsoventral mesoderm patterning in Xenopus. Dosch, R., Gawantka, V., Delius, H., Blumenstock, C., Niehrs, C. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. A morphogen gradient of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling regulates anteroposterior neural patterning in Xenopus. Kiecker, C., Niehrs, C. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. The Xenopus eomesodermin promoter and its concentration-dependent response to activin. Ryan, K., Garrett, N., Bourillot, P., Stennard, F., Gurdon, J.B. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. An experimental system for analyzing response to a morphogen gradient. Gurdon, J.B., Mitchell, A., Ryan, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Formation of a functional morphogen gradient by a passive process in tissue from the early Xenopus embryo. McDowell, N., Gurdon, J.B., Grainger, D.J. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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