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Gene Review

CkIIbeta  -  Casein kinase II beta subunit

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: And, CCK2, CG15224, CK II, CK II beta, ...
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Psychiatry related information on CkIIbeta

  • Andante lengthens the period of the circadian eclosion and locomotor activity rhythms by 1.5-2.0 hours [1].

High impact information on CkIIbeta

  • Here we show that the catalytic subunit of Drosophila casein kinase 2 (CK2alpha) is expressed predominantly in the cytoplasm of key circadian pacemaker neurons [2].
  • CKI and CKII mediate the FREQUENCY-dependent phosphorylation of the WHITE COLLAR complex to close the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop [3].
  • Consistent with a direct action on the clock mechanism, we show that CK2beta is localized within clock neurons and that the clock proteins Period (Per) and Timeless (Tim) accumulate to abnormally high levels in the Andante mutant [4].
  • Furthermore, the nuclear translocation of Per and Tim is delayed in Andante, and this defect accounts for the long-period phenotype of the mutant [4].
  • Andante is a mutation of the gene encoding the beta subunit of CK2 and is predicted to perturb CK2beta subunit dimerization [4].

Biological context of CkIIbeta


Associations of CkIIbeta with chemical compounds

  • Biochemical analyses using gel filtration analysis, inhibitor and heat treatment, as well as urea denaturation studies did not yield significant differences between the wildtype holoenzyme (alpha2beta2) and a holoenzyme containing wildtype CK2alpha and andante CK2beta(And) [7].

Other interactions of CkIIbeta

  • In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, one gene encoding for a CK2alpha subunit and three genes encoding for CK2beta-like proteins are present [6].
  • We have used real-time RT-PCR to assess developmental expression, and find that CKIIbeta is robust and ubiquitous, whereas SSL is restricted to males (third-instar-larvae, pupae, and adults), but is nondetectable in females of the corresponding stages [8].
  • In observer-blind experiments, however, it was found that neither pacemaker-slowing (Andante-like) dy mutations nor others that cause no rhythm defects produced subnormal conditioned courtship [9].


  1. Characterization of Andante, a new Drosophila clock mutant, and its interactions with other clock mutants. Konopka, R.J., Smith, R.F., Orr, D. J. Neurogenet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. A role for casein kinase 2alpha in the Drosophila circadian clock. Lin, J.M., Kilman, V.L., Keegan, K., Paddock, B., Emery-Le, M., Rosbash, M., Allada, R. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. CKI and CKII mediate the FREQUENCY-dependent phosphorylation of the WHITE COLLAR complex to close the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop. He, Q., Cha, J., He, Q., Lee, H.C., Yang, Y., Liu, Y. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. A role for CK2 in the Drosophila circadian oscillator. Akten, B., Jauch, E., Genova, G.K., Kim, E.Y., Edery, I., Raabe, T., Jackson, F.R. Nat. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. In vivo functional analysis of Drosophila protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) beta-subunit. Jauch, E., Melzig, J., Brkulj, M., Raabe, T. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila melanogaster DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for functionally non-redundant protein isoforms. Jauch, E., Wecklein, H., Stark, F., Jauch, M., Raabe, T. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant human Drosophila homologues Timekeeper and Andante involved in the Drosophila circadian oscillator. Rasmussen, T., Skjøth, I.H., Jensen, H.H., Niefind, K., Boldyreff, B., Issinger, O.G. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila SSL gene is expressed in larvae, pupae, and adults, exhibits sexual dimorphism, and mimics properties of the beta subunit of casein kinase II. Karandikar, U., Anderson, S., Mason, N., Trott, R.L., Bishop, C.P., Bidwai, A.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Analysis of conditioned courtship in dusky-Andante rhythm mutants of Drosophila. van Swinderen, B., Hall, J.C. Learn. Mem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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