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Gene Review

sulI  -  confers resistance to sulfonamides;...

Escherichia coli

 
 
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Disease relevance of sulI

 

High impact information on sulI

  • We have cloned the plasmid-quinolone resistance gene, termed qnr, and found it in an integron-like environment upstream from qacE Delta 1 and sulI [2].
  • Genes for spectinomycin resistance, aadA1 [ant (3")-Ia], and sulfonamide resistance, sulI, were located downstream of dfrXV in a manner identical to that in pLMO229 [3].
  • PCR mapping of the aac(6')-Im [corrected] gene environment in these isolates indicated that the gene was located within a sulI-type integron; the insert region is 1,700 bases long and includes two genes cassettes, the second being ant (3")-Ib [4].
  • In strains with sulfamethizole MICs > 2048 mg/L, 97% carried sulI, sulII or both genes, with sulII being the most common [5].
  • Among the sulI gene-positive strains, 96% were intI 1 gene positive [5].
 

Biological context of sulI

  • To further investigate the structure of these integrons, the DNA sequence of the segment located between the two sulI genes was determined [6].
  • DNA sequence of direct repeats of the sulI gene of plasmid pSa [7].
  • A selection of multiresistant bacterial isolates were further genetically characterized by hybridization with probes specific for the antibiotic resistance genes; sulI, sulII, dfrI, dfrIIb, dfrIX, and the class A, B, C, and D tetracycline resistance determinants [8].
  • The informative nature of these models opens up avenues for structure-based drug design approaches toward the development of alternative and more effective inhibitors of P. falciparum PPPK-DHPS [9].
  • The active site residues of DHPS are highly conserved in S. cerevisiae, M. tuberculosis, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. anthracis, an attribute also shared by P. falciparum DHPS [9].
 

Associations of sulI with chemical compounds

  • ORF4, whose product lacks the C-terminal 16 amino acids of the ORF1 protein, may have evolved by the interruption of ORF1 from the insertion of a DNA segment carrying a sulI sulfonamide resistance determinant [10].
  • Site-specific recombination promotes linkage between trimethoprim- and sulfonamide resistance genes. Sequence characterization of dhfrV and sulI and a recombination active locus of Tn21 [11].
  • They were identical for 1065 bp and contained the entire coding sequence of the sulfanilamide resistance gene, sulI [7].
  • Class 1 integrons containing sulI (sulfonamide resistance), aadA1a (streptomycin resistance), or dfrA1 (trimethoprim resistance)-aadA1a gene cassettes were detected in 28 strains [12].
  • Elucidation of sulfadoxine resistance with structural models of the bifunctional Plasmodium falciparum dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase-dihydropteroate synthase [9].
 

Other interactions of sulI

References

  1. Characterization of mutations contributing to sulfathiazole resistance in Escherichia coli. Vedantam, G., Guay, G.G., Austria, N.E., Doktor, S.Z., Nichols, B.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Mechanism of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Tran, J.H., Jacoby, G.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. New trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolate reductase cassette, dfrXV, inserted in a class 1 integron. Adrian, P.V., DU Plessis, M., Klugman, K.P., Amyes, S.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the 6'-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene aac(6')-Im [corrected] associated with a sulI-type integron. Hannecart-Pokorni, E., Depuydt, F., de wit, L., van Bossuyt, E., Content, J., Vanhoof, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Susceptibility of Danish Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections and bacteraemia, and distribution of sul genes conferring sulphonamide resistance. Kerrn, M.B., Klemmensen, T., Frimodt-Møller, N., Espersen, F. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The partial 3'-conserved segment duplications in the integrons In6 from pSa and In7 from pDGO100 have a common origin. Stokes, H.W., Tomaras, C., Parsons, Y., Hall, R.M. Plasmid (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. DNA sequence of direct repeats of the sulI gene of plasmid pSa. Valentine, C.R., Heinrich, M.J., Chissoe, S.L., Roe, B.A. Plasmid (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli of the normal intestinal flora of swine. Sunde, M., Fossum, K., Solberg, A., Sørum, H. Microb. Drug Resist. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Elucidation of sulfadoxine resistance with structural models of the bifunctional Plasmodium falciparum dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase-dihydropteroate synthase. de Beer, T.A., Louw, A.I., Joubert, F. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The 3' conserved segment of integrons contains a gene associated with multidrug resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants. Paulsen, I.T., Littlejohn, T.G., Rådström, P., Sundström, L., Sköld, O., Swedberg, G., Skurray, R.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Site-specific recombination promotes linkage between trimethoprim- and sulfonamide resistance genes. Sequence characterization of dhfrV and sulI and a recombination active locus of Tn21. Sundström, L., Rådström, P., Swedberg, G., Sköld, O. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. A multiresistant clone of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O118:[H16] is spread in cattle and humans over different European countries. Maidhof, H., Guerra, B., Abbas, S., Elsheikha, H.M., Whittam, T.S., Beutin, L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A DNA microarray for identification of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella serovars and Escherichia coli. Chen, S., Zhao, S., McDermott, P.F., Schroeder, C.M., White, D.G., Meng, J. Mol. Cell. Probes (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Biotinylated probes for epidemiological studies of drug resistance in Salmonella krefeld. Pilantanapak, A., Bhumiratana, A., Jayanetra, P., Panbangred, W. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
 
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