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Gene Review

aadA  -  aminoglycoside resistance protein

Escherichia coli

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Disease relevance of aadA

  • The mutagenized DNA was reintroduced into E. coli carrying the aadA gene construct, and transformants that conferred spectinomycin resistance were selected [1].
  • Detection of a streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferase gene (aadA) in Enterococcus faecalis [2].
  • The predicted amino acid sequence of the AAC(6')-Ic protein suggested that it was the third member of a family of AAC(6') proteins which included a coding region identified between the aadB and aadA genes of Tn4000 and an AAC(6') protein encoded by pUO490, which was isolated from Enterobacter cloacae [3].

High impact information on aadA

  • The 5' flanking regions of two other genes, the trimethoprim-resistance gene from R388 and the gentamicin resistance (aadB) gene from pDGO100, are greater than 98% homologous to the 5' flanking sequences of the OXA-1, OXA-2, and aadA genes until they diverge at the target sequence [4].
  • Although three of the four class 1 integron-bearing strains harbored the aadA sequence, none of the strains was phenotypically resistant to streptomycin [5].
  • PCR primers designed for analysis of integrons were used to amplify a 1-kb product containing the aadA gene, which was cloned into the vector pCRII and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5-alpha competent cells [2].
  • The product hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled PCR product from E. coli C600(pHP45Omega) known to contain the aadA gene [2].
  • Transformation experiments confirmed statistical associations by demonstrating that elt, estB, astA, aadA and sul1 were located with catA1 on a large ETEC plasmid [6].

Biological context of aadA

  • Plasmids carrying cmlA also carried sul3 and aadA [6].
  • Analysis of 5' and 3' flanking sequences shows that Tn2603 differs from its probable precursor, Tn21, by a precise 1004-base-pair insertion, containing the OXA-1 structural gene, at the target sequence AAAGTT, which is located between the Tn21 streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA) promoter and its structural gene [4].
  • The bla(VIM-1) gene was part of a class 1 integron that also included aac6, dhfrI and aadA genes and was similar to those reported from strains isolated in Greece [7].
  • This promoter-iteron fragment was then inserted into the assay vector convergent to the aadA gene such that an increased level of spectinomycin resistance by the Escherichia coli host was dependent on the binding of wild-type TrfA protein to the binding site [8].
  • The aadA cassette was also inserted into a transformation vector which contained the independently expressed psbK operon from either E. gracilis or a closely related species, E. stellata [9].

Anatomical context of aadA

  • The NICE1-based rescue plasmid, pNICER1, carries NICE1 sequences for maintenance in plastids, the ColE1 ori for maintenance in E. coli and a spectinomycin resistance gene (aadA) for selection in both systems [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aadA

  • PCR primers corresponding to a highly conserved region of the aadA gene were used to amplify a specific 284-bp product [2].


  1. Direct selection of binding proficient/catalytic deficient variants of BamHI endonuclease. Dorner, L.F., Schildkraut, I. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection of a streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferase gene (aadA) in Enterococcus faecalis. Clark, N.C., Olsvik, O., Swenson, J.M., Spiegel, C.A., Tenover, F.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of the chromosomal aac(6')-Ic gene from Serratia marcescens. Shaw, K.J., Rather, P.N., Sabatelli, F.J., Mann, P., Munayyer, H., Mierzwa, R., Petrikkos, G.L., Hare, R.S., Miller, G.H., Bennett, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta-lactamase gene. Ouellette, M., Bissonnette, L., Roy, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Antimicrobial resistance markers of class 1 and class 2 integron-bearing Escherichia coli from irrigation water and sediments. Roe, M.T., Vega, E., Pillai, S.D. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Chloramphenicol and kanamycin resistance among porcine Escherichia coli in Ontario. Travis, R.M., Gyles, C.L., Reid-Smith, R., Poppe, C., McEwen, S.A., Friendship, R., Janecko, N., Boerlin, P. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. First outbreak of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaVIM-1 and blaSHV-5 in a French university hospital. Kassis-Chikhani, N., Decré, D., Gautier, V., Burghoffer, B., Saliba, F., Mathieu, D., Samuel, D., Castaing, D., Petit, J.C., Dussaix, E., Arlet, G. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of DNA-binding mutants of a plasmid replication initiation protein utilizing an in vivo binding assay. Cereghino, J.L., Helinski, D.R., Toukdarian, A.E. Plasmid (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Chloroplast transformation in Euglena gracilis: splicing of a group III twintron transcribed from a transgenic psbK operon. Doetsch, N.A., Favreau, M.R., Kuscuoglu, N., Thompson, M.D., Hallick, R.B. Curr. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Marker rescue from the Nicotiana tabacum plastid genome using a plastid/Escherichia coli shuttle vector. Staub, J.M., Maliga, P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
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