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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Integrons


High impact information on Integrons

  • Eighteen isolates, representing four serotypes, had integrons with genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and beta-lactams [6].
  • The polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to identify resistance integrons and extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes [6].
  • A possible seventh gene in the mer operon (merE), perhaps with a role in Hg(II) transport, lies in the junction between the integron and the mer operon [7].
  • The sole gene of unknown function in the integron, orf5, resembles a puromycin-modifying enzyme from an antibiotic producing bacterium [7].
  • Integron gene cassettes form circular intermediates carrying a recombination site, attC, and insert into an integron platform at a second site, attI, in a reaction catalyzed by an integron-specific integrase IntI [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Integrons


Biological context of Integrons


Associations of Integrons with chemical compounds

  • Our assessment adds molecular detail to previous models of the evolution of Tn21 and is consistent with the insertion of the integron In2 into an ancestral Tn501-like mer transposon [7].
  • More than half (n = 32) were resistant to sulphonamide, a feature known to be associated with the presence of integrons [18].
  • One of the integrons encoded a novel streptomycin resistance gene, aadA7, with an attC site (or 59-base element) nearly identical to the attC site associated with the qacF gene cassette found in In40 (M.-C. Ploy, P. Courvalin, and T. Lambert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:2557-2563, 1998) [19].
  • New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catB3, in an integron in pBWH301 [20].
  • Combined resistance to both ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the starting point for the development of resistance to additional beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and ciprofloxacin, a development paralleled by an increasing prevalence of integrons [5].

Gene context of Integrons

  • Integrons contain a gene coding for a lambda-like integrase that carries out site-specific recombination by interacting with two different target sites; the attI site and the palindromic sequence attC (59 base element) [21].
  • The gene encoding the new beta-lactamase, bla(OXA-15), lay close to the highly conserved 3' end of an integron and had flanking sequences typical of an integron-associated gene cassette [22].
  • The qnr gene was located on a sul1-type class 1 integron just downstream of a conserved region (CR) element (CR1) comprising the Orf513 recombinase [23].
  • The strain carried a self-transferable plasmid coding for metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-1. bla(VIM-1), along with aacA7, dhfrI, and aadA, was included as a gene cassette in a novel class 1 integron [24].
  • The 3' conserved segment of integrons contains a gene associated with multidrug resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Integrons


  1. Novel streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance gene as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron isolated from Escherichia coli. Sandvang, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Salmonella enterica serovar typhi strains isolated in Korea containing a multidrug resistance class 1 integron. Pai, H., Byeon, J.H., Yu, S., Lee, B.K., Kim, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Novel 3-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene, aac(3)-Ic, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa integron. Riccio, M.L., Docquier, J.D., Dell'Amico, E., Luzzaro, F., Amicosante, G., Rossolini, G.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Class 1 integrons increase trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole MICs against epidemiologically unrelated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. Barbolla, R., Catalano, M., Orman, B.E., Famiglietti, A., Vay, C., Smayevsky, J., Centrón, D., Piñeiro, S.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Multidrug resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is strongly associated with the presence of integrons and is independent of species or isolate origin. Leverstein-van Hall, M.A., M Blok, H.E., T Donders, A.R., Paauw, A., Fluit, A.C., Verhoef, J. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The isolation of antibiotic-resistant salmonella from retail ground meats. White, D.G., Zhao, S., Sudler, R., Ayers, S., Friedman, S., Chen, S., McDermott, P.F., McDermott, S., Wagner, D.D., Meng, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Transposon Tn21, flagship of the floating genome. Liebert, C.A., Hall, R.M., Summers, A.O. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Integron cassette insertion: a recombination process involving a folded single strand substrate. Bouvier, M., Demarre, G., Mazel, D. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Integron-located oxa-32 gene cassette encoding an extended-spectrum variant of OXA-2 beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Poirel, L., Gerome, P., De Champs, C., Stephanazzi, J., Naas, T., Nordmann, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Prevalence of dfr genes associated with integrons and dissemination of dfrA17 among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli in Korea. Yu, H.S., Lee, J.C., Kang, H.Y., Jeong, Y.S., Lee, E.Y., Choi, C.H., Tae, S.H., Lee, Y.C., Seol, S.Y., Cho, D.T. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Incidence, distribution, and spread of tetracycline resistance determinants and integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes among motile aeromonads from a fish farming environment. Schmidt, A.S., Bruun, M.S., Dalsgaard, I., Larsen, J.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. An integron cassette encoding erythromycin esterase, ere(A), from Providencia stuartii. Plante, I., Centrón, D., Roy, P.H. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification and characterization of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates. Zhao, S., White, D.G., Ge, B., Ayers, S., Friedman, S., English, L., Wagner, D., Gaines, S., Meng, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Family of class 1 integrons related to In4 from Tn1696. Partridge, S.R., Recchia, G.D., Stokes, H.W., Hall, R.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Dissemination of CTX-M-type beta-lactamases among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Paris, France. Eckert, C., Gautier, V., Saladin-Allard, M., Hidri, N., Verdet, C., Ould-Hocine, Z., Barnaud, G., Delisle, F., Rossier, A., Lambert, T., Philippon, A., Arlet, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. IBC-1, a novel integron-associated class A beta-lactamase with extended-spectrum properties produced by an Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain. Giakkoupi, P., Tzouvelekis, L.S., Tsakris, A., Loukova, V., Sofianou, D., Tzelepi, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Presence of a group II intron in a multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain that harbors three integrons and a novel gene fusion. Centrón, D., Roy, P.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Integronlike structures in Campylobacter spp. of human and animal origin. Lucey, B., Crowley, D., Moloney, P., Cryan, B., Daly, M., O'Halloran, F., Threlfall, E.J., Fanning, S. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Antibiotic resistance in the ECOR collection: integrons and identification of a novel aad gene. Mazel, D., Dychinco, B., Webb, V.A., Davies, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catB3, in an integron in pBWH301. Bunny, K.L., Hall, R.M., Stokes, H.W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. DNA complexes obtained with the integron integrase IntI1 at the attI1 site. Gravel, A., Fournier, B., Roy, P.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. OXA-15, an extended-spectrum variant of OXA-2 beta-lactamase, isolated from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Danel, F., Hall, L.M., Gur, D., Livermore, D.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli in Europe. Mammeri, H., Van De Loo, M., Poirel, L., Martinez-Martinez, L., Nordmann, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Escherichia coli with a self-transferable, multiresistant plasmid coding for metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-1. Miriagou, V., Tzelepi, E., Gianneli, D., Tzouvelekis, L.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. The 3' conserved segment of integrons contains a gene associated with multidrug resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants. Paulsen, I.T., Littlejohn, T.G., Rådström, P., Sundström, L., Sköld, O., Swedberg, G., Skurray, R.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Novel complex sul1-type integron in Escherichia coli carrying bla(CTX-M-9). Sabaté, M., Navarro, F., Miró, E., Campoy, S., Mirelis, B., Barbé, J., Prats, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Biochemical sequence analyses of GES-1, a novel class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and the class 1 integron In52 from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Poirel, L., Le Thomas, I., Naas, T., Karim, A., Nordmann, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Distribution and characterization of class 1 integrons in Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum biotype Gallinarum. Kwon, H.J., Kim, T.E., Cho, S.H., Seol, J.G., Kim, B.J., Hyun, J.W., Park, K.Y., Kim, S.J., Yoo, H.S. Vet. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Usefulness of genetic typing methods to trace epidemiologically Salmonella serotype Ohio. Soto, S.M., Martínez, N., Guerra, B., González-Hevia, M.A., Mendoza, M.C. Epidemiol. Infect. (2000) [Pubmed]
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