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Gene Review

ACAT2  -  acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACTL, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic, Acetyl-CoA transferase-like protein, Cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase
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Disease relevance of ACAT2


Psychiatry related information on ACAT2


High impact information on ACAT2

  • This chromosomal region harbors positional candidate genes, such as the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R, 6q26) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT2, 6q25.3-q26) [5].
  • Possible strategies focused on selective ACAT 2 inhibition or the combination of ACAT inhibitors with compounds that stimulate reverse cholesterol transport may prove to have clinical benefit [6].
  • Two ACAT genes (ACAT1 and ACAT2) have been identified [7].
  • Each tagged ACAT2 was expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum as a single undegraded protein band and was at least partially active enzymatically [7].
  • The enzymology of VLDL triglyceride synthesis is still poorly understood; however, it appears that ACAT2 is the sole source of cholesterol esters for VLDL and chylomicron assembly [8].

Biological context of ACAT2


Anatomical context of ACAT2


Associations of ACAT2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ACAT2


Other interactions of ACAT2

  • To study ACAT2 topology, we inserted two different antigenic tags (hemagglutinin, monoclonal antibody Mab1) at various hydrophilic regions flanking each of its predicted TMDs, and expressed the recombinant proteins in mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells lacking endogenous ACAT [7].
  • Control of ACAT2 liver expression by HNF1 [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACAT2

  • Northern blot analysis showed that the ACAT2 mRNA was expressed primarily in liver and intestine in monkeys [9].
  • Sequence analysis of an isolated, full-length clone of ACAT2 cDNA identified an open reading frame encoding a 526-amino acid protein with essentially no sequence similarity to the ACAT1 cDNA over the N-terminal 101 amino acids but with 57% identity predicted over the remaining 425 amino acids [9].


  1. Control of ACAT2 liver expression by HNF1. Pramfalk, C., Davis, M.A., Eriksson, M., Rudel, L.L., Parini, P. J. Lipid Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. ACAT2 is a target for treatment of coronary heart disease associated with hypercholesterolemia. Rudel, L.L., Lee, R.G., Parini, P. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. A patient with severe neurologic symptoms and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency. Groot, C.J., Haan, G.L., Hulstaert, C.E., Hoomes, F.A. Pediatr. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Biochemical investigations on a patient with a defect in cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, associated with mental retardation. Bennett, M.J., Hosking, G.P., Smith, M.F., Gray, R.G., Middleton, B. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. A major locus for fasting insulin concentrations and insulin resistance on chromosome 6q with strong pleiotropic effects on obesity-related phenotypes in nondiabetic Mexican Americans. Duggirala, R., Blangero, J., Almasy, L., Arya, R., Dyer, T.D., Williams, K.L., Leach, R.J., O'Connell, P., Stern, M.P. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. And then there were acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyl transferase inhibitors. Meuwese, M.C., Franssen, R., Stroes, E.S., Kastelein, J.J. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Human acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells: membrane topology and active site location. Lin, S., Lu, X., Chang, C.C., Chang, T.Y. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Very-low-density lipoprotein assembly and secretion. Shelness, G.S., Sellers, J.A. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of a form of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase specific to liver and intestine in nonhuman primates. Anderson, R.A., Joyce, C., Davis, M., Reagan, J.W., Clark, M., Shelness, G.S., Rudel, L.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Secretion of hepatocyte apoB is inhibited by the flavonoids, naringenin and hesperetin, via reduced activity and expression of ACAT2 and MTP. Wilcox, L.J., Borradaile, N.M., de Dreu, L.E., Huff, M.W. J. Lipid Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Practical assay method of cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase by rapid release of cytosolic enzymes from cultured lymphocytes using digitonin. Watanabe, H., Yamaguchi, S., Kimura, M., Wakazono, A., Song, X.Q., Fukao, T., Orii, T., Hashimoto, T. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Human Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Inhibitory Activities of Aliphatic Acid Amides from Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. Park, Y.D., Lee, W.S., An, S., Jeong, T.S. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. A critical role for the histidine residues in the catalytic function of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase catalysis: evidence for catalytic difference between ACAT1 and ACAT2. An, S., Cho, K.H., Lee, W.S., Lee, J.O., Paik, Y.K., Jeong, T.S. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Importance of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1/2 dual inhibition for anti-atherosclerotic potency of pactimibe. Kitayama, K., Tanimoto, T., Koga, T., Terasaka, N., Fujioka, T., Inaba, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. High resolution crystal structures of human cytosolic thiolase (CT): a comparison of the active sites of human CT, bacterial thiolase, and bacterial KAS I. Kursula, P., Sikkilä, H., Fukao, T., Kondo, N., Wierenga, R.K. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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