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MeSH Review

Subcutaneous Fat

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Disease relevance of Subcutaneous Fat

  • Familial partial lipodystrophy, Dunnigan variety, (FPLD, OMIM 308980) is an autosomal-dominant condition characterized by marked loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue affecting the trunk and extremities but with excess fat deposition in the head and neck areas [1].
  • These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that in diabetic pregnancy fetal hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinism stimulate increased triglyceride synthesis in adipose cells and enlargement of adipose cells and lead to an increase in fetal subcutaneous fat [2].
  • Here we show that tissue factor (TF) gene expression also is significantly elevated in the epididymal and subcutaneous fat pads from ob/ob mice compared with their lean counterparts, and that its level of expression in obese mice increases with age and the degree of obesity [3].
  • METHODS: We cross-sectionally assessed lipodystrophy both clinically and radiographically in patients who, 4 years before, had been enrolled in a randomized comparative trial of stavudine- or zidovudine-based therapy. mtDNA content was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue from the thigh and back [4].
  • During hyperglycemia, no difference was detected in delay between blood and interstitial glucose levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (18.0 +/- 0.8 min), muscle (18.0 +/- 0.9 min), and CNS (20.3 +/- 1.2 min), respectively [5].

Psychiatry related information on Subcutaneous Fat

  • The decrease in the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/S ratio) was statistically significant in the D + T group (1.09 +/- 0.11 v 0.94 +/- 0.09, P < .05), while the V/S ratio in the control group did not change [6].

High impact information on Subcutaneous Fat


Chemical compound and disease context of Subcutaneous Fat


Biological context of Subcutaneous Fat


Anatomical context of Subcutaneous Fat


Associations of Subcutaneous Fat with chemical compounds


Gene context of Subcutaneous Fat


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Subcutaneous Fat


  1. Localization of the gene for familial partial lipodystrophy (Dunnigan variety) to chromosome 1q21-22. Peters, J.M., Barnes, R., Bennett, L., Gitomer, W.M., Bowcock, A.M., Garg, A. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Subcutaneous fat in newborn infants of diabetic mothers: An indication of quality of diabetic control. Whitelaw, A. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Tissue factor gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese mice. Samad, F., Pandey, M., Loskutoff, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Prevalence of lipoatrophy and mitochondrial DNA content of blood and subcutaneous fat in HIV-1-infected patients randomly allocated to zidovudine- or stavudine-based therapy. van der Valk, M., Casula, M., Weverlingz, G.J., van Kuijk, K., van Eck-Smit, B., Hulsebosch, H.J., Nieuwkerk, P., van Eeden, A., Brinkman, K., Lange, J., de Ronde, A., Reiss, P. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Continuous glucose monitoring in interstitial subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle reflects excursions in cerebral cortex. Nielsen, J.K., Djurhuus, C.B., Gravholt, C.H., Carus, A.C., Granild-Jensen, J., Orskov, H., Christiansen, J.S. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of troglitazone on fat distribution in the treatment of male type 2 diabetes. Kawai, T., Takei, I., Oguma, Y., Ohashi, N., Tokui, M., Oguchi, S., Katsukawa, F., Hirose, H., Shimada, A., Watanabe, K., Saruta, T. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of gastric inhibitory polypeptide signaling prevents obesity. Miyawaki, K., Yamada, Y., Ban, N., Ihara, Y., Tsukiyama, K., Zhou, H., Fujimoto, S., Oku, A., Tsuda, K., Toyokuni, S., Hiai, H., Mizunoya, W., Fushiki, T., Holst, J.J., Makino, M., Tashita, A., Kobara, Y., Tsubamoto, Y., Jinnouchi, T., Jomori, T., Seino, Y. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhanced expression of PAI-1 in visceral fat: possible contributor to vascular disease in obesity. Shimomura, I., Funahashi, T., Takahashi, M., Maeda, K., Kotani, K., Nakamura, T., Yamashita, S., Miura, M., Fukuda, Y., Takemura, K., Tokunaga, K., Matsuzawa, Y. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Aplastic anemia associated with canthaxanthin ingested for 'tanning' purposes. Bluhm, R., Branch, R., Johnston, P., Stein, R. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Weisberg, S.P., McCann, D., Desai, M., Rosenbaum, M., Leibel, R.L., Ferrante, A.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Adipocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a mediator of adipose tissue growth. Levine, J.A., Jensen, M.D., Eberhardt, N.L., O'Brien, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. In the lipodystrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, pseudo-Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased regeneration of cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue. Sutinen, J., Kannisto, K., Korsheninnikova, E., Nyman, T., Ehrenborg, E., Andrew, R., Wake, D.J., Hamsten, A., Walker, B.R., Yki-Järvinen, H. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Reversibility of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients 2 years after switching from a thymidine analogue to abacavir: the MITOX Extension Study. Martin, A., Smith, D.E., Carr, A., Ringland, C., Amin, J., Emery, S., Hoy, J., Workman, C., Doong, N., Freund, J., Cooper, D.A. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. Bogacka, I., Xie, H., Bray, G.A., Smith, S.R. Diabetes Care (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Reversal of decreased human adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and hypertriglyceridemia after treatment of hypothyroidism. Pykälistö, O., Goldberg, A.P., Brunzell, J.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue values associated with risk of possessing elevated blood lipids and blood pressure. Hunter, G.R., Snyder, S.W., Kekes-Szabo, T., Nicholson, C., Berland, L. Obes. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibition of hormone-stimulated lipolysis by clofibrate. A possible mechanism for its hypolipidemic action. D'Costa, M.A., Angel, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Relationship of generalized and regional adiposity to insulin sensitivity in men with NIDDM. Abate, N., Garg, A., Peshock, R.M., Stray-Gundersen, J., Adams-Huet, B., Grundy, S.M. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Insulin signaling in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Laviola, L., Perrini, S., Cignarelli, A., Natalicchio, A., Leonardini, A., De Stefano, F., Cuscito, M., De Fazio, M., Memeo, V., Neri, V., Cignarelli, M., Giorgino, R., Giorgino, F. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Pioglitazone induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Bogacka, I., Xie, H., Bray, G.A., Smith, S.R. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased postprandial fatty acid trapping in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women. Kalant, D., Phélis, S., Fielding, B.A., Frayn, K.N., Cianflone, K., Sniderman, A.D. J. Lipid Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Glycerol production in subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans. Jansson, P.A., Larsson, A., Smith, U., Lönnroth, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Does central obesity reflect "Cushing's disease of the omentum"? Bujalska, I.J., Kumar, S., Stewart, P.M. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Regular physical activity and coronary risk factors in Japanese men. Hsieh, S.D., Yoshinaga, H., Muto, T., Sakurai, Y. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Marked heterogeneity of human skeletal muscle lipolysis at rest. Hagström-Toft, E., Qvisth, V., Nennesmo, I., Rydén, M., Bolinder, H., Enoksson, S., Bolinder, J., Arner, P. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. A deceptive case of amyloid myopathy: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features. Hull, K.M., Griffith, L., Kuncl, R.W., Wigley, F.M. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Lactate release from the subcutaneous tissue in lean and obese men. Jansson, P.A., Larsson, A., Smith, U., Lönnroth, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Concentration of etretinate in plasma and subcutaneous fat after long-term acitretin. Maier, H., Hönigsmann, H. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of HAART-associated lipodystrophy--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Sutinen, J., Häkkinen, A.M., Westerbacka, J., Seppälä-Lindroos, A., Vehkavaara, S., Halavaara, J., Järvinen, A., Ristola, M., Yki-Järvinen, H. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Association between adiponectin and mediators of inflammation in obese women. Engeli, S., Feldpausch, M., Gorzelniak, K., Hartwig, F., Heintze, U., Janke, J., Möhlig, M., Pfeiffer, A.F., Luft, F.C., Sharma, A.M. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. FOXC2 mRNA Expression and a 5' untranslated region polymorphism of the gene are associated with insulin resistance. Ridderstråle, M., Carlsson, E., Klannemark, M., Cederberg, A., Kösters, C., Tornqvist, H., Storgaard, H., Vaag, A., Enerbäck, S., Groop, L. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Regional difference in insulin inhibition of non-esterified fatty acid release from human adipocytes: relation to insulin receptor phosphorylation and intracellular signalling through the insulin receptor substrate-1 pathway. Zierath, J.R., Livingston, J.N., Thörne, A., Bolinder, J., Reynisdottir, S., Lönnqvist, F., Arner, P. Diabetologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. HSV vector-mediated transduction and GDNF secretion from adipose cells. Fradette, J., Wolfe, D., Goins, W.F., Huang, S., Flanigan, R.M., Glorioso, J.C. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Microdialysis measurement of the absolute glucose concentration in subcutaneous adipose tissue allowing glucose monitoring in diabetic patients. Bolinder, J., Ungerstedt, U., Arner, P. Diabetologia (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Rosiglitazone treatment increases subcutaneous adipose tissue glucose uptake in parallel with perfusion in patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, randomized study with metformin. Viljanen, A.P., Virtanen, K.A., Järvisalo, M.J., Hällsten, K., Parkkola, R., Rönnemaa, T., Lönnqvist, F., Iozzo, P., Ferrannini, E., Nuutila, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. C-174G polymorphism in the promoter of the interleukin-6 gene is associated with insulin resistance. Cardellini, M., Perego, L., D'Adamo, M., Marini, M.A., Procopio, C., Hribal, M.L., Andreozzi, F., Frontoni, S., Giacomelli, M., Paganelli, M., Pontiroli, A.E., Lauro, R., Folli, F., Sesti, G. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Identification of progesterone receptor in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. O'Brien, S.N., Welter, B.H., Mantzke, K.A., Price, T.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Endothelin receptor subtypes in resistance arteries from humans and rats. Deng, L.Y., Li, J.S., Schiffrin, E.L. Cardiovasc. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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