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Gene Review

IGF1  -  insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C)

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: IGF-1, IGF-I
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Disease relevance of IGF1


High impact information on IGF1


Chemical compound and disease context of IGF1

  • Daily injections of 2500 micrograms corticosterone/kg body weight, in both lines, depressed mean concentrations of plasma prolactin, T3 and somatomedin C and body weight [10].
  • Increasing dietary protein (compared to increasing dietary fat) increased body weights, IGF-I, T4 and decreased lipogenesis, malic enzyme activity, and T3 [11].
  • 6. In conclusion, the improvement in body weight gain caused by dietary L-carnitine supplementation was achieved when chicks were given their dietary protein requirement, which may be partially explained by an increase in plasma IGF-I concentration [12].
  • The bone uncoupling (in formation and resorption) associated with vitamin B6 deficiency seems to be due to secondary hypercortisolism and (or) another unknown factors but not related to a change in bone modulators such as IGF-1 and eicosanoids [13].
  • One of the most interesting observations was that the type of reciprocal cross had highly significant effects on body weight at hatch and on plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-I, but it had no significant effect on body weight at 56 days of age [14].

Biological context of IGF1

  • However, these associations were not simultaneously found in both strains suggesting that they might have been produced by linkage disequilibrium with another mutation located in the IGF1 locus or another linked gene [15].
  • In chick embryo retinas, cultured in serum-free medium lacking L-glutamine, IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation and cell death, IGF-I being the most efficacious compound [16].
  • In mammals, IGF-I gene expression is complicated, as the single-copy gene is transcribed and processed into multiple mRNAs that encode at least two peptide precursors [17].
  • Chicken embryos are a suitable model for studying the role of insulin, insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), and their receptors in embryogenesis [18].
  • Hybrid genes containing at least 0.6 kb of IGF-I enhanced expression of luciferase after transfection into SK-N-MC cells, a human line that synthesizes IGF-I mRNA [17].

Anatomical context of IGF1


Associations of IGF1 with chemical compounds

  • As in the rat and human genes, the mature 70-amino acid IGF-I molecule is encoded within exons 2 and 3, while exons 1 and 4 contain NH2- and COOH-terminal extension peptides, respectively, and untranslated sequences [17].
  • In response to insulin, IGF-I, or IGF-II, an 87K membrane-associated protein (pp87) became phosphorylated on tyrosine in a rapid, dose-dependent manner [22].
  • Pretreatment of neurons with lovastatin (2 micrograms/ml), an inhibitor of ras isoprenylation, completely blocked the activation of p21ras by insulin and IGF-I [23].
  • The percentage carcass protein for ad libitum-fed breeders was positively correlated to IGF-I, T4, T3, insulin/glucagon M ratio, and insulin [24].
  • The T4 was the most important hormone for predicting the percentage carcass fat in ad libitum-fed pullets, and IGF-I was the most important hormone for predicting the percentage carcass fat in feed-restricted pullets [24].

Physical interactions of IGF1

  • The developmental patterns of [125I]IGF-I and [125I]IGF-II binding to brain were similar, and IGF-I showed approximately a 2-fold higher binding than IGF-II; there was a sharp increase from days 3 to 6, and a subsequent gradual fall during the second and third weeks of ontogeny [25].
  • We suggest that the interaction of a somatomedin with its membrane-bound receptor generates an intracellular signal that interacts specifically with the ovalbumin gene [6].

Regulatory relationships of IGF1


Other interactions of IGF1

  • Half-maximal responses required 0.2 nM IGF2 or IGF1, or 20 nM insulin [8].
  • The results indicate an increase in IGF-1 (P < 0.01) and a decrease in IGFBP-2 (P < 0.05) mRNA expression in slow muscle of the stimulated group compared with the control group [30].
  • The serum GH in the dwarf cocks was significantly higher than their normal siblings (P < 0.05), whereas the serum IGF-I in the dwarf cocks was very low [19].
  • Thereafter, plasma concentrations of IGF-I declined with decreases (P < 0.05) between Days 14.5 and 15.5 and between Days 16.5 and 17.5 of incubation [31].
  • By day 8 of incubation, IGF-1 levels were significantly higher and the 30 kDa IGFBP levels were significantly lower in the alcohol-treated group compared with vehicles [2].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IGF1


  1. Polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor, osteopontin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin, and their associations with bone, egg and growth traits in a layer--broiler cross in chickens. Bennett, A.K., Hester, P.Y., Spurlock, D.E. Anim. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Alcohol-induced modulation of the insulin-like growth factor system in early chick embryo cranial tissue. Lynch, S.A., Elton, C.W., Carver, F.M., Pennington, S.N. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibits parathyroid hormone-stimulated and enhances prostaglandin E2-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production by human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Goad, D.L., Tashjian, A.H. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Ectopic insulin-like growth factor I expression in avian skeletal muscle prevents expression of CMD4, a novel inhibitor of differentiation. Winner, D.G., Ealy, A.D., Hannon, K., Johnson, S.E. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The regulation of GH-dependent hormones and enzymes after feed restriction in dwarf and control chickens. Dewil, E., Darras, V.M., Spencer, G.S., Lauterio, T.J., Decuypere, E. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. A somatomedin-like peptide hormone is required during the estrogen-mediated induction of ovalbumin gene transcription. Evans, M.I., Hager, L.J., McKnight, G.S. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for an important role of IGF-I and IGF-II for the early development of chick sympathetic neurons. Zackenfels, K., Oppenheim, R.W., Rohrer, H. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Nerve sprouting in innervated adult skeletal muscle induced by exposure to elevated levels of insulin-like growth factors. Caroni, P., Grandes, P. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Autocrine/paracrine role of insulin-related growth factors in neurogenesis: local expression and effects on cell proliferation and differentiation in retina. Hernández-Sánchez, C., López-Carranza, A., Alarcón, C., de La Rosa, E.J., de Pablo, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of corticosterone on circulating concentrations of corticosterone, prolactin, thyroid hormones and somatomedin C and on fattening in broilers selected for high or low fat content. Buyse, J., Decuypere, E., Sharp, P.J., Huybrechts, L.M., Kühn, E.R., Whitehead, C. J. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Dietary fat and protein interactions in the broiler. Rosebrough, R.W., McMurtry, J.P., Vasilatos-Younken, R. Poult. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Dietary L-carnitine increases plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentration in chicks fed a diet with adequate dietary protein level. Kita, K., Kato, S., Amanyaman, M., Okumura, J., Yokota, H. Br. Poult. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Perturbations in factors that modulate osteoblast functions in vitamin B6 deficiency. Massé, P.G., Delvin, E.E., Hauschka, P.V., Donovan, S.M., Grynpas, M.D., Mahuren, J.D., Watkins, B.A., Howell, D.S. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. QTL analysis of body composition and metabolic traits in an intercross between chicken lines divergently selected for growth. Park, H.B., Jacobsson, L., Wahlberg, P., Siegel, P.B., Andersson, L. Physiol. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the chicken insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 genes and their associations with growth and feeding traits. Amills, M., Jiménez, N., Villalba, D., Tor, M., Molina, E., Cubiló, D., Marcos, C., Francesch, A., Sànchez, A., Estany, J. Poult. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Insulin and IGFs induce apoptosis in chick embryo retinas deprived of L-glutamine. Calvaruso, G., Vento, R., Gerbino, E., Lauricella, M., Carabillò, M., Main, H., Tesoriere, G. Cell Death Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Structure of the chicken insulin-like growth factor I gene reveals conserved promoter elements. Kajimoto, Y., Rotwein, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Developmental regulation of insulin and type I insulin-like growth factor receptors and absence of type II receptors in chicken embryo tissues. Bassas, L., Lesniak, M.A., Serrano, J., Roth, J., de Pablo, F. Diabetes (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Deficiency of growth hormone receptor does not affect male reproduction in dwarf chickens. Zheng, J.X., Liu, Z.Z., Yang, N. Poult. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Structure and expression of a chicken insulin-like growth factor I precursor. Kajimoto, Y., Rotwein, P. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 inhibits both basal and IGF-mediated chick pelvic cartilage growth in vitro. Schiltz, P.M., Mohan, S., Baylink, D.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Insulin and insulin-like growth factors stimulate in vivo receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of a 70K substrate in cultured fetal chick neurons. Kenner, K.A., Heidenreich, K.A. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence that p21ras mediates the neurotrophic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in chick forebrain neurons. Robinson, L.J., Leitner, W., Draznin, B., Heidenreich, K.A. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. The relationship of body composition, feed intake, and metabolic hormones for broiler breeder females. Sun, J.M., Richards, M.P., Rosebrough, R.W., Ashwell, C.M., McMurtry, J.P., Coon, C.N. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Ontogeny of receptors for insulin-like peptides in chick embryo tissues: early dominance of insulin-like growth factor over insulin receptors in brain. Bassas, L., de Pablo, F., Lesniak, M.A., Roth, J. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. BMPs and BMPRs in chicken ovary and effects of BMP-4 and -7 on granulosa cell proliferation and progesterone production in vitro. Onagbesan, O.M., Bruggeman, V., Van As, P., Tona, K., Williams, J., Decuypere, E. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Transcriptional stimulation of the delta 1-crystallin gene by insulin-like growth factor I and insulin requires DNA cis elements in chicken. Alemany, J., Borras, T., de Pablo, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Triiodothyronine stimulates transcription of the fatty acid synthase gene in chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor amplify that effect. Stapleton, S.R., Mitchell, D.A., Salati, L.M., Goodridge, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of insulin-like growth factor I and interactions with transforming growth factor alpha and LH on proliferation of chicken granulosa cells and production of progesterone in culture. Onagbesan, O.M., Peddie, M.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Neuromuscular stimulation causes muscle phenotype-dependent changes in the expression of the IGFs and their binding proteins in developing slow and fast muscle of chick embryos. McEntee, G.M., Simbi, B.H., Bayol, S.A., Macharia, R.G., Stickland, N.C. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Ontogenic changes in the circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding proteins in the chicken embryo. Scanes, C.G., Thommes, R.C., Radecki, S.V., Buonomo, F.C., Woods, J.E. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Chicken insulin-like growth factor-I: amino acid sequence, radioimmunoassay, and plasma levels between strains and during growth. Ballard, F.J., Johnson, R.J., Owens, P.C., Francis, G.L., Upton, F.M., McMurtry, J.P., Wallace, J.C. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Insulin-like growth factor I induced survival of axotomized olfactory neurons in the chick. Mathonnet, M., Comte, I., Lalloué, F., Ayer-Le Lièvre, C. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Temporal expression of growth factor genes during myogenesis of satellite cells derived from the biceps femoris and pectoralis major muscles of the chicken. Kocamis, H., McFarland, D.C., Killefer, J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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