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Gene Review

GCG  -  glucagon

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: GLP1, GLP2, GRPP
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Disease relevance of GCG

  • Glucagon prevented ocular elongation and myopia and induced choroidal thickening in form-deprived eyes [1].
  • RESULTS: The Phe(6)-antagonist at 10(-5) M (in the syringe) inhibited changes in both refractive error and axial length compensation induced by +7-D lens wear; however, des-Phe(6)-antagonist (10(-5) M) had weak, inconsistent effects and did not antagonize the action of exogenous glucagon [1].
  • Glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and immunoreactive glucagon in chickens selected for high and low body weight [2].
  • Intracerebroventricular administration of glucagon in chicks significantly suppressed food intake and significantly induced hyperglycemia [3].
  • The glucagon antagonist inhibited hyperopia development, albeit only in a narrow concentration range, and at most by 50%, but not myopia development [4].

Psychiatry related information on GCG


High impact information on GCG


Chemical compound and disease context of GCG


Biological context of GCG

  • Insulin and glucagon increased after hatch, which may be due to increased feed consumption and increased utilization of carbohydrates as the key energy source, compared with nutrients obtained through lipolysis and proteolysis in the embryos [14].
  • Plasma glucagon levels remained low until 17E, and then significantly increased approximately 3-fold at hatch, which corresponded with increasing plasma glucose levels during late embryo development [14].
  • Chicken glucagon. Isolation and amino acid sequence studies [15].
  • These results show that proglucagon gene expression is regulated at the level of mRNA splicing and serve to reemphasize the potential biological importance of GLP 2 [16].
  • Trout and chicken proglucagon: alternative splicing generates mRNA transcripts encoding glucagon-like peptide 2 [16].

Anatomical context of GCG


Associations of GCG with chemical compounds

  • Developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of embryogenesis and posthatch development [14].
  • The amino acid composition of chicken glucagon indicates that it contains 1 more serine residue than the porcine hormone and 1 less aspartic acid (asparagine) residue [15].
  • The amino acid sequence of chicken glucagon was HSQGTFTSDYSKYLDSRRAQDFVQWLMST, which was contained in the 151-amino acid long precursor, being preceded by a signal sequence and an amino-terminal peptide (NH2-peptide) and followed by an intervening peptide and a glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) [19].
  • Our data suggest that GCG and GCC codons play a key role in polyalanine-coding sequence appearance and polymorphism [20].
  • Labeling experiments with chicken liver cell monolayers and suspensions show that glucagon and N6, O2-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (dibutyryl cyclic AMP) block fatty acid synthesis from acetate without appreciably affecting cholesterogenesis from acetate or acylglyceride synthesis from palmitate [9].

Physical interactions of GCG

  • These results suggest that central GLP-1 may interact with NPY and may be the most potent inhibitor of food intake in the chicken [21].

Regulatory relationships of GCG


Other interactions of GCG


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GCG


  1. Glucagon receptor agonists and antagonists affect the growth of the chick eye: a role for glucagonergic regulation of emmetropization? Vessey, K.A., Lencses, K.A., Rushforth, D.A., Hruby, V.J., Stell, W.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and immunoreactive glucagon in chickens selected for high and low body weight. Sinsigalli, N.A., McMurtry, J.P., Cherry, J.A., Siegel, P.B. J. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Central administration of glucagon suppresses food intake in chicks. Honda, K., Kamisoyama, H., Saito, N., Kurose, Y., Sugahara, K., Hasegawa, S. Neurosci. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Evidence for a potential role of glucagon during eye growth regulation in chicks. Feldkaemper, M.P., Schaeffel, F. Vis. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Distribution of proglucagon mRNA and GLP-1 in the brainstem of chicks. Tachibana, T., Hiramatsu, K., Furuse, M., Hasegawa, S., Yoshizawa, F., Sugahara, K. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Intracerebroventricular injection of fusaric acid attenuates the anorexia by glucagon-like peptide-1 in the neonatal chick. Bungo, T., Kawakami, S.I., Ohgushi, A., Sashihara, K., Saito, N., Sugahara, K., Hasegawa, S., Denbow, D.M., Furuse, M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Light- and focus-dependent expression of the transcription factor ZENK in the chick retina. Fischer, A.J., McGuire, J.J., Schaeffel, F., Stell, W.K. Nat. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Parathyroid hormone receptor in intact embryonic chicken bone: characterization and cellular localization. Silve, C.M., Hradek, G.T., Jones, A.L., Arnaud, C.D. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Mechanism for acute control of fatty acid synthesis by glucagon and 3':5'-cyclic AMP in the liver cell. Watkins, P.A., Tarlow, D.M., Lane, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Abdominal adipose tissue from broiler chickens selected for body weight or for food efficiency differ in in vitro lipolytic sensitivity to glucagon and to chicken growth hormone, but not to dibutyryl cAMP. Buyse, J., Decuypere, E., Leenstra, F.R., Scanes, C.G. Br. Poult. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Elevated insulin/glucagon ratios and decreased cyclic AMP levels accompany the glycogen and triglyceride storage syndrome in the hypothyroid chick. Raheja, K.L., Linscheer, W.G., Coulson, R., Wentworth, S., Fineberg, S.E. Horm. Metab. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Further studies on the biochemical characterization of the MC-29 virus derived transplantable hepatoma (VTH). II. Modification of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels by catecholamines, glucagon and Vinca alkaloids in normal chicken liver and VTH. Gyapay, G., Lapis, E., Jeney, A., Lapis, K. Acta. Biol. Hung. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Adenylate cyclase activity in plasma membranes of chicken liver and of Mc-29 virus induced hepatoma. Chelibonova-Lorer, H., Hadjiivanova, N., Gavazova, E. Int. J. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Developmental Changes of Plasma Insulin, Glucagon, Insulin-like Growth Factors, Thyroid Hormones, and Glucose Concentrations in Chick Embryos and Hatched Chicks. Lu, J.W., McMurtry, J.P., Coon, C.N. Poult. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Chicken glucagon. Isolation and amino acid sequence studies. Pollock, H.G., Kimmel, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Trout and chicken proglucagon: alternative splicing generates mRNA transcripts encoding glucagon-like peptide 2. Irwin, D.M., Wong, J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The hypothalamus is involved in the anorexic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 in chicks. Tachibana, T., Hirofuji, K., Matsumoto, M., Furuse, M., Hasegawa, S., Yoshizawa, F., Sugahara, K. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Lack of feedback regulation of cyclic 3':5'-AMP accumulation by free fatty acids in chicken fat cells. Malgieri, J.A., Shepherd, R.E., Fain, J.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucleotide sequence determination of chicken glucagon precursor cDNA. Chicken preproglucagon does not contain glucagon-like peptide II. Hasegawa, S., Terazono, K., Nata, K., Takada, T., Yamamoto, H., Okamoto, H. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Polymorphism, shared functions and convergent evolution of genes with sequences coding for polyalanine domains. Lavoie, H., Debeane, F., Trinh, Q.D., Turcotte, J.F., Corbeil-Girard, L.P., Dicaire, M.J., Saint-Denis, A., Pagé, M., Rouleau, G.A., Brais, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of fasting and neuropeptide Y on the suppressive food intake induced by intracerebroventricular injection of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the neonatal chick. Furuse, M., Matsumoto, M., Mori, R., Sugahara, K., Kano, K., Hasegawa, S. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Hormonal regulation of lipogenic enzymes in chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Expression of the fatty acid synthase gene is regulated at both translational and pretranslational steps. Wilson, S.B., Back, D.W., Morris, S.M., Swierczynski, J., Goodridge, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Triiodothyronine stimulates and glucagon inhibits transcription of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene in chick embryo hepatocytes: glucose and insulin amplify the effect of triiodothyronine. Hillgartner, F.B., Charron, T., Chesnut, K.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Influence of fasting, glucose and insulin on the levels of growth hormone and prolactin in the plasma of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Harvey, S., Scanes, C.G., Chadwick, A., Bolton, N.J. J. Endocrinol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Insulin stimulates somatostatin and inhibits glucagon secretion from the perfused chicken pancreas-duodenum. Honey, R.N., Weir, G.C. Life Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. The relationship of body composition, feed intake, and metabolic hormones for broiler breeder females. Sun, J.M., Richards, M.P., Rosebrough, R.W., Ashwell, C.M., McMurtry, J.P., Coon, C.N. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Triiodothyronine stimulates transcription of the fatty acid synthase gene in chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor amplify that effect. Stapleton, S.R., Mitchell, D.A., Salati, L.M., Goodridge, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Cyclic AMP-mediated inhibition of transcription of the malic enzyme gene in chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Characterization of a cis-acting element far upstream of the promoter. Mounier, C., Chen, W., Klautky, S.A., Goodridge, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of diet on adenylosuccinase activity in various organs of rat and chicken. Brand, L.M., Lowenstein, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. GLP-1 gene delivery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Oh, S., Lee, M., Ko, K.S., Choi, S., Kim, S.W. Mol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Glucagon and VIP in the retina. Ekman, R., Tornqvist, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Changes in retinal and choroidal gene expression during development of refractive errors in chicks. Feldkaemper, M.P., Wang, H.Y., Schaeffel, F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
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