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Gene Review

Tm1  -  Tropomyosin 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 1305/10, 2299, BcDNA:GH09289, BcDNA:LD37158, BcDNA:SD21996, ...
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Disease relevance of Tm1

  • The sequence of the heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 of K1-4c is strikingly similar to that of a monoclonal antibody (F11.2.32) specific for HIV-1 protease [1].

High impact information on Tm1

  • Requirement for Drosophila cytoplasmic tropomyosin in oskar mRNA localization [2].
  • In a screen for mutants defective in germ cell formation, we isolated nine alleles of the tropomyosin II gene [2].
  • Normal Drosophila have a fractional shortening of 87 +/- 4%, whereas cardiomyopathic flies that contain a mutation in troponin I or tropomyosin show severe impairment of systolic function [3].
  • One of these modifiers, Tm2, encodes tropomyosin, another component of the Tc-Tm complex [4].
  • An enhancer-blocking element (BEAD-1, for blocking element alpha/delta 1) was localized to a 2.0-kb region 3' of TCR delta gene segments and 5' of TCR alpha joining gene segments within this locus [5].

Biological context of Tm1


Anatomical context of Tm1


Associations of Tm1 with chemical compounds

  • Their N-termini are conventional and complete tropomyosin sequences, but their C-termini consist of different IFM-specific domains that are rich in proline, alanine, glycine and glutamate [6].
  • The two Drosophila TnHs (isoforms 33 and 34) are naturally occurring fusion proteins in which a proline-rich extension of approximately 250 amino acids replaces the 27 C-terminal residues of the muscle-specific tropomyosin II isoform [13].
  • The Kc cell cytoplasmic tropomyosin comigrates in two dimensions with the hybrid-selected in vitro translation product of the region 3 gene, and both proteins show a mobility shift in NaDodSO4/urea/polyacrylamide gels that is characteristic of vertebrate tropomyosins [11].
  • Identification of tropomyosin as the major shrimp allergen and characterization of its IgE-binding epitopes [14].
  • The total sequence predicts a protein of 576 amino acids with three conserved regions: a 90-amino-acid repeat domain, a SH3 (src homology region 3) motif, and a guanylate kinase domain [15].

Physical interactions of Tm1

  • Furthermore, we show that TmII genetically interacted with flamingo, a gene encoding a membrane receptor-like molecule that affects dendritic growth [16].

Other interactions of Tm1

  • Three adjacent areas of binding by nuclear proteins from activated hepatic stellate cells were identified at -568 to -554 (region 1), -542 to -518 (region 2), and -473 to -453 (region 3) of the promoter using DNase I protection analyses [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tm1

  • Site-directed mutagenesis of a residue in transmembrane region 3 and the loop between transmembrane regions 6 and 7 affect ligand binding, as previously described for somatostatin receptors [18].
  • Tryptic maps of both Sa-II and tropomyosin as obtained by reverse phase HPLC were superimposable [14].
  • Shrimp tropomyosin bound to specific IgE antibodies in the sera of shrimp-sensitive patients as assessed by competitive ELISA inhibition and Western blot analysis [14].


  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding the heavy and light chain variable regions of an Ab2beta anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody possessing an internal image of cocaine. Ho, M., Segre, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Requirement for Drosophila cytoplasmic tropomyosin in oskar mRNA localization. Erdélyi, M., Michon, A.M., Guichet, A., Glotzer, J.B., Ephrussi, A. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Drosophila as a model for the identification of genes causing adult human heart disease. Wolf, M.J., Amrein, H., Izatt, J.A., Choma, M.A., Reedy, M.C., Rockman, H.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes. Sung, S.S., Brassington, A.M., Grannatt, K., Rutherford, A., Whitby, F.G., Krakowiak, P.A., Jorde, L.B., Carey, J.C., Bamshad, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. An enhancer-blocking element between alpha and delta gene segments within the human T cell receptor alpha/delta locus. Zhong, X.P., Krangel, M.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. The structural role of high molecular weight tropomyosins in dipteran indirect flight muscle and the effect of phosphorylation. Mateos, J., Herranz, R., Domingo, A., Sparrow, J., Marco, R. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Lack of Drosophila cytoskeletal tropomyosin affects head morphogenesis and the accumulation of oskar mRNA required for germ cell formation. Tetzlaff, M.T., Jäckle, H., Pankratz, M.J. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila melanogaster tropomyosin II gene produces multiple proteins by use of alternative tissue-specific promoters and alternative splicing. Hanke, P.D., Storti, R.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of a Drosophila cDNA clone that encodes a 252-amino acid non-muscle tropomyosin isoform. Hanke, P.D., Lepinske, H.M., Storti, R.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Small differences in Drosophila tropomyosin expression have significant effects on muscle function. Tansey, T., Schultz, J.R., Miller, R.C., Storti, R.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of a cytoplasmic tropomyosin gene linked to two muscle tropomyosin genes in Drosophila. Bautch, V.L., Storti, R.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. The Drosophila AP axis is polarised by the cadherin-mediated positioning of the oocyte. González-Reyes, A., St Johnston, D. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction of troponin-H and glutathione S-transferase-2 in the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila melanogaster. Clayton, J.D., Cripps, R.M., Sparrow, J.C., Bullard, B. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of tropomyosin as the major shrimp allergen and characterization of its IgE-binding epitopes. Shanti, K.N., Martin, B.M., Nagpal, S., Metcalfe, D.D., Rao, P.V. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. A gene (DLG2) located at 17q12-q21 encodes a new homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor dIg-A. Mazoyer, S., Gayther, S.A., Nagai, M.A., Smith, S.A., Dunning, A., van Rensburg, E.J., Albertsen, H., White, R., Ponder, B.A. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Actin filament-stabilizing protein tropomyosin regulates the size of dendritic fields. Li, W., Gao, F.B. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of acetaldehyde on Sp1 binding and activation of the mouse alpha 2(I) collagen promoter. Miao, K., Potter, J.J., Anania, F.A., Rennie-Tankersley, L., Mezey, E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional annotation of two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors, Drostar1 and -2, from Drosophila melanogaster and their ligands by reverse pharmacology. Kreienkamp, H.J., Larusson, H.J., Witte, I., Roeder, T., Birgul, N., Honck, H.H., Harder, S., Ellinghausen, G., Buck, F., Richter, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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