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Gene Review

PER3  -  period homolog 3 (Drosophila)

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on PER3


Biological context of PER3


Anatomical context of PER3


Associations of PER3 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PER3

  • The rhythm in TPH mRNA also persists in constant darkness, suggesting that TPH mRNA synthesis and/or turnover is regulated by an endogenous circadian clock in cultured chick pineal cells [15].
  • These rhythms appear to reflect circadian clock control of AA-NAT mRNA abundance and independent effects of light and darkness on both mRNA levels and enzyme activity [16].

Other interactions of PER3

  • Iodopsin is a circadian-regulated, photoreceptor-specific gene expressed in chicken retina, and Clock is a transcription factor that has been shown to play a role in the circadian clock mechanism in mouse and Drosophila [17].
  • Development of light-dark regulation of AANAT activity appears to precede the circadian clock-control of enzyme activity [18].
  • Clearly, the expression of pinopsin gene is controlled by a light signal, independent of the circadian clock [19].
  • Together, our results demonstrate the existence of a G11-mediated opsin-signaling pathway contributing to the photic entrainment of the circadian clock [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PER3


  1. Circadian clock in culture: N-acetyltransferase activity of chick pineal glands oscillates in vitro. Kasal, C.A., Menaker, M., Perez-Polo, J.R. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Temperature compensation and temperature entrainment of the chick pineal cell circadian clock. Barrett, R.K., Takahashi, J.S. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Negative control of circadian clock regulator E4BP4 by casein kinase Iepsilon-mediated phosphorylation. Doi, M., Okano, T., Yujnovsky, I., Sassone-Corsi, P., Fukada, Y. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates oscillation of chick pineal circadian clock. Hayashi, Y., Sanada, K., Hirota, T., Shimizu, F., Fukada, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Lcg is a light-inducible and clock-controlled gene expressed in the chicken pineal gland. Hatori, M., Okano, T., Nakajima, Y., Doi, M., Fukada, Y. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. GR196429: a nonindolic agonist at high-affinity melatonin receptors. Beresford, I.J., Browning, C., Starkey, S.J., Brown, J., Foord, S.M., Coughlan, J., North, P.C., Dubocovich, M.L., Hagan, R.M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Development of the circadian melatonin rhythm and the effect of PACAP on melatonin release in the embryonic chicken pineal gland. An in vitro study. Faluhelyi, N., Reglodi, D., Lengvári, I., Csernus, V. Regul. Pept. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Ontogeny of circadian clock gene expression in the pineal and the suprachiasmatic nucleus of chick embryo. Okabayashi, N., Yasuo, S., Watanabe, M., Namikawa, T., Ebihara, S., Yoshimura, T. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of the Circadian Melatonin Rhythm and Its Responsiveness to PACAP in the Embryonic Chicken Pineal Gland. Faluhelyi, N., Reglodi, D., Csernus, V. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Opsin-G11-mediated signaling pathway for photic entrainment of the chicken pineal circadian clock. Kasahara, T., Okano, T., Haga, T., Fukada, Y. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Synthesis of retinal ganglion cell phospholipids is under control of an endogenous circadian clock: daily variations in phospholipid-synthesizing enzyme activities. Garbarino-Pico, E., Carpentieri, A.R., Castagnet, P.I., Pasquaré, S.J., Giusto, N.M., Caputto, B.L., Guido, M.E. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Chicktacking pineal clock. Okano, T., Fukada, Y. J. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA levels are regulated by the circadian clock, temperature, and cAMP in chick pineal cells. Green, C.B., Besharse, J.C., Zatz, M. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Chicken pineal Cry genes: light-dependent up-regulation of cCry1 and cCry2 transcripts. Yamamoto, K., Okano, T., Fukada, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning of chick pineal tryptophan hydroxylase and circadian oscillation of its mRNA levels. Florez, J.C., Seidenman, K.J., Barrett, R.K., Sangoram, A.M., Takahashi, J.S. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Cellular and molecular regulation of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in chicken retinal photoreceptors. Iuvone, P.M., Bernard, M., Alonso-Gomez, A., Greve, P., Cassone, V.M., Klein, D.C. Biol. Signals (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Circadian regulation of iodopsin and clock is altered in the retinal degeneration chicken retina. Larkin, P., Baehr, W., Semple-Rowland, S.L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Melatonin synthesis in retina: circadian regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in cultured photoreceptor cells of embryonic chicken retina. Ivanova, T.N., Iuvone, P.M. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Light-dependent expression of pinopsin gene in chicken pineal gland. Takanaka, Y., Okano, T., Iigo, M., Fukada, Y. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Circadian clock in cell culture: I. Oscillation of melatonin release from dissociated chick pineal cells in flow-through microcarrier culture. Robertson, L.M., Takahashi, J.S. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
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