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Gene Review

pho  -  pleiohomeotic

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG17743, Dmel\CG17743, PHO, PHO/YY1, Pho, ...
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Disease relevance of pho


High impact information on pho

  • CtBP mutation does not result in YY1 degradation or transport from the nucleus, suggesting a mechanism whereby YY1 DNA binding ability is masked [2].
  • We propose that PHO acts to anchor PcG protein complexes to DNA [3].
  • YY1 functionally compensated for loss of PHO in pho mutant flies and partially corrected mutant phenotypes [4].
  • Moreover, grainyhead interacts genetically with pleiohomeotic in a transgene-based, pairing-dependent silencing assay [5].
  • PHO contacts the BRM complex through its zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a short N-terminal region [6].

Biological context of pho


Anatomical context of pho

  • The absence of maternally supplied products from all of the genes studied except l(4)29 can be largely or completely compensated for by the activity in the zygote of a paternally contributed wild-type allele [9].

Associations of pho with chemical compounds

  • Deletion of this short YY1 motif did not affect transient transcriptional repression but ablated PcG repression, PcG protein recruitment to DNA, and methylation of H3 lysine 27 [10].
  • To test if these elements were functionally responsive to YY1, we performed transient expression experiments in Drosophila S-2 cells transfected with heterologous reporter gene constructs driven by histone H4 gene segments fused to the thymidine kinase promoter [11].

Physical interactions of pho

  • Importantly, we found that the PC-binding domain of PHO can mediate transcriptional repression in transfected Drosophila Schneider cells [6].

Regulatory relationships of pho


Other interactions of pho


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pho

  • With mobility shift assays and DNA pulldown experiments, we demonstrated that PHO is able to link PC, which lacks sequence-specific DNA-binding activity, to the DNA [6].


  1. Role of the transcription start site core region and transcription factor YY1 in Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter activity. Mobley, C.M., Sealy, L. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. YY1 DNA binding and PcG recruitment requires CtBP. Srinivasan, L., Atchison, M.L. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The Drosophila Polycomb group gene pleiohomeotic encodes a DNA binding protein with homology to the transcription factor YY1. Brown, J.L., Mucci, D., Whiteley, M., Dirksen, M.L., Kassis, J.A. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcription factor YY1 functions as a PcG protein in vivo. Atchison, L., Ghias, A., Wilkinson, F., Bonini, N., Atchison, M.L. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficient and specific targeting of Polycomb group proteins requires cooperative interaction between Grainyhead and Pleiohomeotic. Blastyák, A., Mishra, R.K., Karch, F., Gyurkovics, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Pleiohomeotic can link polycomb to DNA and mediate transcriptional repression. Mohd-Sarip, A., Venturini, F., Chalkley, G.E., Verrijzer, C.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The Drosophila pho-like gene encodes a YY1-related DNA binding protein that is redundant with pleiohomeotic in homeotic gene silencing. Brown, J.L., Fritsch, C., Mueller, J., Kassis, J.A. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila pleiohomeotic mutation enhances the Polycomblike and Polycomb mutant phenotypes during embryogenesis and in the adult. Kwon, S.H., Kim, S.H., Chung, H.M., Girton, J.R., Jeon, S.H. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Maternal expression of genes that regulate the bithorax complex of Drosophila melanogaster. Breen, T.R., Duncan, I.M. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Polycomb recruitment to DNA in vivo by the YY1 REPO domain. Wilkinson, F.H., Park, K., Atchison, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Multiple interactions of the transcription factor YY1 with human histone H4 gene regulatory elements. Last, T.J., van Wijnen, A.J., Birnbaum, M.J., Stein, G.S., Stein, J.L. J. Cell. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The MCP silencer of the Drosophila Abd-B gene requires both Pleiohomeotic and GAGA factor for the maintenance of repression. Busturia, A., Lloyd, A., Bejarano, F., Zavortink, M., Xin, H., Sakonju, S. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. The DNA-binding polycomb group protein pleiohomeotic mediates silencing of a Drosophila homeotic gene. Fritsch, C., Brown, J.L., Kassis, J.A., Müller, J. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
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