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Gene Review

CD4  -  CD4 molecule

Pan troglodytes

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Disease relevance of CD4

  • We show here that expression of HIV envelope proteins allows syncytium formation between cells expressing human but not chimpanzee or macaque CD4 [1].
  • In further contrast with results of other workers, we observed that transformant human cell lines expressing native chimpanzee or rhesus CD4 efficiently formed syncytia when mixed with cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein [2].
  • This leukopenia was the result of a pan T lymphocytopenia with CD4/CD8 ratios in the expected range (1-2) [3].
  • In trial 1, we compared the two broiler lines for weight gain depression, intestinal lesion and number of CD3, CD4, CD8 cells and macrophages/monocytes after MAS80 inoculation [4].

High impact information on CD4

  • We find that the CD4 sequences regulating cell fusion lie outside the recognized virus binding site; in the simplest exchange, chimpanzee CD4 bearing human residue 87 supports syncytium formation, while human CD4 bearing chimpanzee residue 87 does not [1].
  • Infection of human cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 is insensitive to lysosomotropic agents, suggesting that viral penetration under these circumstances does not require endocytosis [1].
  • As opposed to controls, in all organs examined the level of CD8+ (cytotoxic/suppressor) T cells was significantly diminished (p < 0.01); consequently, the CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) [5].
  • Additionally, T cell surface markers (mu-chain, pan T, CD4, and CD8) were determined in spleen, lymph node, and peripheral blood from 10-wk infected and normal pups by single and dual parameter fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis [5].
  • Mean alveolar lymphocyte subpopulation frequencies, determined in 18 samples, for pan T, CD4, and CD8 cells were 52, 21.9, and 17.8%, respectively, with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 1 [6].

Biological context of CD4

  • A CD4 domain important for HIV-mediated syncytium formation lies outside the virus binding site [1].
  • Significant differences in numbers of MNC's expressing cluster designation (CD) phenotypes CD4, CD14, CD19, and CD45RA were found [7].

Anatomical context of CD4

  • On day 14 PI there were increased CD8+ lymphocytes and decreased CD4/CD8 ratios (approximately 0.6) in these sheep [3].


  1. A CD4 domain important for HIV-mediated syncytium formation lies outside the virus binding site. Camerini, D., Seed, B. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. CD4 molecules with a diversity of mutations encompassing the CDR3 region efficiently support human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. Broder, C.C., Berger, E.A. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. T lymphocyte subset alterations following bluetongue virus infection in sheep and cattle. Ellis, J.A., Luedke, A.J., Davis, W.C., Wechsler, S.J., Mecham, J.O., Pratt, D.L., Elliott, J.D. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Cellular immune response in the small intestine of two broiler chicken lines orally inoculated with malabsorption syndrome homogenates. Songserm, T., Engel, B., van Roozelaar, D.J., Kok, G.L., Pijpers, A., Pol, J.M., ter Huurne, A.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Immune abnormalities in guinea pigs with asymptomatic congenital syphilis. Wicher, V., Zhao, J., Dilwith, R., Burger, R., Wicher, K. Pediatr. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential cell analysis and phenotypic subtyping of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from clinically normal dogs. Vail, D.M., Mahler, P.A., Soergel, S.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered lymphocyte phenotypes and proliferative responses in chimpanzees infected with hepatitis C virus. Holzer, T.J., Heynen, C.A., Kennedy, M.M., Peterson, D.A. J. Med. Primatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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