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Gene Review

ELAC1  -  elaC ribonuclease Z 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: D29, Deleted in Ma29, ElaC homolog protein 1, RNase Z 1, Ribonuclease Z 1, ...
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Disease relevance of ELAC1


High impact information on ELAC1

  • Furthermore, only the two previously reported missense changes (Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr) were identified by mutational analysis of all HPC2/ELAC exons in 93 probands with HPC [6].
  • Partial purification and separation of RNase Z from the 5' processing activity RNase P allowed us to determine biochemical characteristics of the enzyme [7].
  • The precursor for tRNAPhe requires RNA editing for efficient processing by RNase Z [7].
  • The 15 patients with T-cell disease had higher D29 MRD than those with B-lineage ALL (P =.01) [8].
  • The group of patients with a D29 MRD less than 0.01% included patients with T-cell disease, white blood cell count more than 50 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis, or age 10 years or older, and could not be identified by up-front criteria [8].

Biological context of ELAC1

  • In the human genome exists a gene, ELAC1, which seems to correspond to the C-terminal half of 3' tRNase from ELAC2 [9].
  • Naturally occurring mutations in human mitochondrial pre-tRNASer(UCN) can affect the transfer ribonuclease Z cleavage site, processing kinetics, and substrate secondary structure [3].
  • Comparison with its nuclear and mitochondrial homologs revealed that the substrate specificity of the archaeal RNase Z is narrower than that of the nuclear RNase Z but broader than that of the mitochondrial RNase Z [10].
  • Mitochondrial pretRNA(His) is processed by the nuclear RNase Z, generating a mature tRNA(His) containing an 8 base pair acceptor stem [11].
  • To our surprise, the newly isolated proteins T. maritima and T. thermophilus showed the weak tRNase Z activity, even though their primary amino acid sequences are, on the whole, quite different from those of the typical tRNase Zs [12].

Anatomical context of ELAC1

  • This enzyme has been characterized from representatives of all three domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya), as well as from mitochondria and chloroplasts. tRNase Z enzymes come in two forms: short versions (280-360 amino acids in length), present in all three kingdoms, and long versions (750-930 amino acids), present only in eukaryotes [13].
  • In vitro assays using partially purified HeLa cell RNase P and mitochondrial tRNA 3' processing endonuclease (tRNase Z) confirmed that the efficiency of both 5' and 3' processing was impaired [14].
  • Between May 1993 and August 1994, 27 patients with loco-regional squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were treated with 2 courses of combined fluorouracil(1000mg per square meter of body-surface area daily for 5 days) and cisplatin(60mg per square meter on the first day)(D1 and D29) plus 48Gy of radiation therapy(RT) over 4 weeks [15].

Associations of ELAC1 with chemical compounds

  • Trz1p has two putative nucleotide triphosphate-binding motifs (P-loop) and a conserved histidine motif [1].
  • The histidine motif and the putative nucleotide binding motif at the C-domain are important for Trz1p function because mutant proteins bearing changes to the critical residues in these motifs are unable to rescue deletion of TRZ1 [1].
  • Our X-ray data (resolution ranging from 2.2 to 1.2 A) reveal strong interactions between the bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane moiety of TMC114 and main-chain atoms of D29 and D30 [16].
  • RNase Z leaves 5' terminal phosphoryl and 3' terminal hydroxyl groups at the processing products [11].
  • The therapeutic indices, which mark the extent of the therapeutically effective dose, of V29 (29Arg-->Val) and D29 (-->Asp) were 3.5 and 3.2, respectively, whereas that of rhTNF was 1 [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ELAC1

  • Further trials are needed to reveal whether such patients with D29 MRD less than 0.01% can be cured with less intensive chemotherapy, which would reduce the risk of serious late effects as well as the costs of therapy [8].
  • No patients with a MRD level less than 0.01% on D29 have so far had a relapse, whereas the 7-year probability of event-free survival for patients with higher MRD levels was 0.52 (P =.0007) [8].


  1. Characterization of TRZ1, a yeast homolog of the human candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene ELAC2 encoding tRNase Z. Chen, Y., Beck, A., Davenport, C., Chen, Y., Shattuck, D., Tavtigian, S.V. BMC Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Crystal structure of the tRNA 3' processing endoribonuclease tRNase Z from Thermotoga maritima. Ishii, R., Minagawa, A., Takaku, H., Takagi, M., Nashimoto, M., Yokoyama, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Naturally occurring mutations in human mitochondrial pre-tRNASer(UCN) can affect the transfer ribonuclease Z cleavage site, processing kinetics, and substrate secondary structure. Yan, H., Zareen, N., Levinger, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Novel muteins of human tumor necrosis factor with potent antitumor activity and less lethal toxicity in mice. Kuroda, K., Miyata, K., Shikama, H., Kawagoe, T., Nishimura, K., Takeda, K., Sakae, N., Kato, M. Int. J. Cancer (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Use of a phage-based assay for phenotypic detection of mycobacteria directly from sputum. Park, D.J., Drobniewski, F.A., Meyer, A., Wilson, S.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of linkage and association of HPC2/ELAC2 in patients with familial or sporadic prostate cancer. Xu, J., Zheng, S.L., Carpten, J.D., Nupponen, N.N., Robbins, C.M., Mestre, J., Moses, T.Y., Faith, D.A., Kelly, B.D., Isaacs, S.D., Wiley, K.E., Ewing, C.M., Bujnovszky, P., Chang , B., Bailey-Wilson, J., Bleecker, E.R., Walsh, P.C., Trent, J.M., Meyers, D.A., Isaacs, W.B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. 5' end maturation and RNA editing have to precede tRNA 3' processing in plant mitochondria. Kunzmann, A., Brennicke, A., Marchfelder, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Precise quantification of minimal residual disease at day 29 allows identification of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and an excellent outcome. Nyvold, C., Madsen, H.O., Ryder, L.P., Seyfarth, J., Svejgaard, A., Clausen, N., Wesenberg, F., Jonsson, O.G., Forestier, E., Schmiegelow, K. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. A candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene encodes tRNA 3' processing endoribonuclease. Takaku, H., Minagawa, A., Takagi, M., Nashimoto, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. tRNA 3' end maturation in archaea has eukaryotic features: the RNase Z from Haloferax volcanii. Schierling, K., Rösch, S., Rupprecht, R., Schiffer, S., Marchfelder, A. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. tRNA 3' processing in plants: nuclear and mitochondrial activities differ. Mayer, M., Schiffer, S., Marchfelder, A. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Substrate recognition ability differs among various prokaryotic tRNase Zs. Minagawa, A., Takaku, H., Shibata, H.S., Ishii, R., Takagi, M., Yokoyama, S., Nashimoto, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The tRNase Z family of proteins: physiological functions, substrate specificity and structural properties. Vogel, A., Schilling, O., Späth, B., Marchfelder, A. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The 7472insC mtDNA mutation impairs 5' and 3' processing of tRNA(Ser(UCN)). Toompuu, M., Levinger, L.L., Nadal, A., Gomez, J., Jacobs, H.T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locoregional esophageal cancer: preliminary report. Kim, S.B., Kim, S.H., Lee, K.H., Lee, J.W., Kim, S.W., Suh, C.W., Lee, J.S., Song, H.Y., Chang, H.S., Choi, E.K. J. Korean Med. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Structural and thermodynamic basis for the binding of TMC114, a next-generation human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor. King, N.M., Prabu-Jeyabalan, M., Nalivaika, E.A., Wigerinck, P., de Béthune, M.P., Schiffer, C.A. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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