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Chemical Compound Review

urethane     ethyl carbamate

Synonyms: Uretano, Urethan, Urethanum, Leucethane, Leucothane, ...
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Disease relevance of urethane

  • Genetic influence on type 2 or Clara cell origin of pulmonary adenomas in urethan-treated mice [1].
  • Outbred Swiss Cox mice of both sexes were given single ip injections of 0.5--2.0 mg urethan/g body weight [2].
  • BALB/cCrgl, C57BL/Ki, and (C57BL/Ki X DBAf)F1 mice were treated with 7,12-diemthylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) or urethan to determine conditions that would induce a high frequency of ductal hyperplasias in the mammary gland [3].
  • The predominant mammary lesions in urethan-treated, pituitary isograft-bearing C57BL and (C57BL X DBAf)F1 mice were terminal duct (lobular) hyperplasias characterized by intraluminal epithelial hyperplasia; the urethan-induced mammary tumors were a mixture of adenocarcinomas (36%), adenoacanthomas (5%), and fibroadenomas (59%) [3].
  • Effect of reovirus infection on pulmonary tumor response to urethan in strain A mice [4].

Psychiatry related information on urethane

  • Similar tracks in chronically implanted rats showed evoked firing at numerous sites during wakefulness but not during anesthesia (pentobarbital or urethane) [5].
  • After this discrimination learning was accomplished in 3-5 days, the rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.5 g/kg, i.p.), and neural responses were recorded in SI during flutter stimuli applied to the contralateral hindpaw [6].
  • Spontaneous firing rates and changes in firing rate in response to an intravenously administered dose of apomorphine were measured after various electroconvulsive shock (ECS) treatment regimens from dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra in urethane-anesthetized rats [7].
  • Under several conditions (W, SWS, and urethan), when cells exhibited bursts >20%, the variability of their response latency was reduced in burst mode compared with single-spike mode [8].
  • Under urethane anesthesia, animals exhibit patterns of cortical activity similar to those seen in wake, drowsiness and slow-wave sleep in unanesthetized animals [9].

High impact information on urethane

  • Furthermore, Pyran-activated maternal macrophages could pass through the placenta, and enhanced urethane-induced cell killing (but not somatic mutation) in the embryo [10].
  • An Eco-RI restriction fragment length polymorphism occurring in a DNA fragment containing the first exon of the murine KRAS2 gene was shown to correlate with the inherited susceptibility of inbred strains of mice to urethan (CAS: 51-79-6)-induced pulmonary adenomas [11].
  • Urethan (CAS: 51-79-6)-induced pulmonary adenomas that arise from either alveolar type II pneumocytes of bronchiolar Clara cells have distinct histologic growth patterns and can thus be distinguished from each other [12].
  • A U+ B- phenotype (urethan inducible but unresponsive to BHT enhancement) also was found among the recombinant inbred lines originally derived from a cross between U+B+ BALB/-cByJ and U-/B- C57BL/6ByJ progenitor strains [13].
  • Cell kinetic studies showed that BHT given in the diet produced increased proliferation of type II alveolar cells during the first 2 weeks and that initial cell proliferation was delayed in urethan-treated animals [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of urethane


Biological context of urethane

  • When BALB mice were crossed with either of these more sensitive strains the response of the progeny to urethan was most easily explained by a single gene which regulates susceptibility, with the more resistant phenotype behaving as a dominant trait [19].
  • On the other hand, repeated stimulation of cell growth after urethan treatment enhanced tumorigenesis [20].
  • Relationship of lung adenoma prevalence and growth rate to acute urethan dose and target cell number [2].
  • In normal adult rats anesthetized with urethane, intravenous injections of beta-endorphin (30--150 micrograms kg-1) induced a transient fall of blood pressure followed by a small hypertension and a prolonged hypotension [21].
  • We present numerical estimates for the probability of initiated cell death for different schedules (and doses) of urethane administration [22].

Anatomical context of urethane


Associations of urethane with other chemical compounds


Gene context of urethane


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of urethane

  • In urethane-anesthetized rats, neocortical EEG showed a periodical alternation between two states: a slow-wave state (SWS) characterized by large and slow waves and a fast-wave state (FWS) characterized by faster waves [35].
  • During the first 2 weeks after treatment, urethan strongly suppressed the cytotoxicity by spleen cells of A/J mice but had relatively little effect on the reactivity of spleen cells of CBA/J mice [36].
  • The effects of adrenalectomy (Ax) on urethan-induced lung tumors were determined in strains of mice that vary in their respective tumor susceptibilities: A/J (sensitive), BALB/cByJ (intermediate), and C57BL/6J (B6, resistant) [37].
  • Corpus mucosal blood flow was measured by the hydrogen gas clearance technique and acid output by a continuous gastric perfusion method in fasted, urethane-anesthetized rats [38].
  • Vagotomy blocked the effect of ICV NPY on gastric acid secretion in a urethane-anesthetized rat model with acute gastric fistula [39].


  1. Genetic influence on type 2 or Clara cell origin of pulmonary adenomas in urethan-treated mice. Beer, D.G., Malkinson, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Relationship of lung adenoma prevalence and growth rate to acute urethan dose and target cell number. Dourson, M.L., O'Flaherty, E.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Mammary tumorigenesis in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. IV. Induction of mammary ductal hyperplasias. Medina, D., Warner, M.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of reovirus infection on pulmonary tumor response to urethan in strain A mice. Theiss, J.C., Stoner, G.D., Kniazeff, A.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Anesthetics eliminate somatosensory-evoked discharges of neurons in the somatotopically organized sensorimotor striatum of the rat. West, M.O. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Endogenous fluorescence imaging of somatosensory cortical activities after discrimination learning in rats. Shibuki, K., Ono, K., Hishida, R., Kudoh, M. Neuroimage (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Subsensitivity of catecholaminergic neurons to direct acting agonists after single or repeated electroconvulsive shock. Tepper, J.M., Nakamura, S., Spanis, C.W., Squire, L.R., Young, S.J., Groves, P.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Auditory thalamus bursts in anesthetized and non-anesthetized states: contribution to functional properties. Massaux, A., Dutrieux, G., Cotillon-Williams, N., Manunta, Y., Edeline, J.M. J. Neurophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Cortical activation states in sleep and anesthesia. II: respiratory reflexes. Hunter, J.D., McLeod, J.Z., Milsom, W.K. Respiration physiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Suppression of developmental anomalies by maternal macrophages in mice. Nomura, T., Hata, S., Kusafuka, T. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. KRAS2 as a genetic marker for lung tumor susceptibility in inbred mice. Ryan, J., Barker, P.E., Nesbitt, M.N., Ruddle, F.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Cellular derivation of lung tumors in sensitive and resistant strains of mice: results at 28 and 56 weeks after urethan treatment. Thaete, L.G., Gunning, W.T., Stoner, G.D., Malkinson, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Pharmacologic and genetic studies on the modulatory effects of butylated hydroxytoluene on mouse lung adenoma formation. Malkinson, A.M., Beer, D.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhancement of lung tumor formation in mice by dietary butylated hydroxytoluene: dose-time relationships and cell kinetics. Witschi, H.R., Morse, C.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Urethan-induced mammary tumorigenesis in a murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV)-positive mouse strain: evidence for a keratinized nodule as an MuMTV-negative precursor lesion for squamous cell tumors. Imai, S., Tsubura, Y., Hilgers, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Medullary sites of action of the TRH analogue, RX 77368, for stimulation of gastric acid secretion in the rat. Ishikawa, T., Yang, H., Taché, Y. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion in rats and in dogs by corticotropin-releasing factor. Taché, Y., Goto, Y., Gunion, M., Rivier, J., Debas, H. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased susceptibility of vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-deficient mice to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Raval-Fernandes, S., Kickhoefer, V.A., Kitchen, C., Rome, L.H. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Major effect on susceptibility to urethan-induced pulmonary adenoma by a single gene in BALB/cBy mice. Malkinson, A.M., Beer, D.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Enhancement of urethan tumorigenesis in mouse lung by butylated hydroxytoluene. Witschi, H., Williamson, D., Lock, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Systemic administration of beta-endorphin: potent hypotensive effect involving a serotonergic pathway. Lemaire, I., Tseng, R., Lemaire, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Estimating the probability of initiated cell death before tumor induction. Boucher, K.M., Yakovlev, A.Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Inhibition of the activity of mouse natural killer cells by urethan. Gorelik, E., Herberman, R.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Somatostatin monoclonal antibody immunoneutralization increases gastrin and gastric acid secretion in urethane-anesthetized rats. Yang, H., Wong, H., Wu, V., Walsh, J.H., Taché, Y. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. A model of neural cross-talk and irritation in the pelvis: implications for the overlap of chronic pelvic pain disorders. Pezzone, M.A., Liang, R., Fraser, M.O. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Neuropeptide Y in the dorsal vagal complex stimulates bicarbonate-dependent bile secretion in rats. Yoneda, M., Yokohama, S., Tamori, K., Sato, Y., Nakamura, K., Makino, I. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Central vagal activation increases mucus gel thickness and surface cell intracellular pH in rat stomach. Tanaka, S., Taché, Y., Kaneko, H., Guth, P.H., Kaunitz, J.D. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion and mucosal integrity in mice lacking prostaglandin E-receptor subtype EP(3). Takeuchi, K., Ukawa, H., Kato, S., Furukawa, O., Araki, H., Sugimoto, Y., Ichikawa, A., Ushikubi, F., Narumiya, S. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of the state of phosphorylation of specific neuronal proteins in mouse brain by in vivo administration of anesthetic and convulsant agents. Strömbom, U., Forn, J., Dolphin, A.C., Greengard, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Opiate receptors and the endorphin-mediated cardiovascular effects of clonidine in rats: evidence for hypertension-induced mu-subtype to delta-subtype changes. Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Kunos, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Frequency-dependent activation of glucose utilization in the superior cervical ganglion by electrical stimulation of cervical sympathetic trunk. Yarowsky, P., Kadekaro, M., Sokoloff, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. High basal gastric acid secretion in somatostatin receptor subtype 2 knockout mice. Martinez, V., Curi, A.P., Torkian, B., Schaeffer, J.M., Wilkinson, H.A., Walsh, J.H., Taché, Y. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Genetic dissection of theta rhythm heterogeneity in mice. Shin, J., Kim, D., Bianchi, R., Wong, R.K., Shin, H.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Endothelin as a neuropeptide. Cardiovascular effects in the brainstem of normotensive rats. Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Inagami, T., Appalsamy, M., Sugiura, M., Robertson, R.M. Circ. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. State-dependent sensory gating in olfactory cortex. Murakami, M., Kashiwadani, H., Kirino, Y., Mori, K. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Susceptibility of various strains of mice to urethan-induced lung tumors and depressed natural killer cell activity. Gorelik, E., Herberman, R.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone administration on mouse lung tumor susceptibility and histogenesis. Droms, K.A., Fernandez, C.A., Thaete, L.G., Malkinson, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
  38. Central nervous system action of thyrotropin-releasing hormone to increase gastric mucosal blood flow in the rat. Thiefin, G., Taché, Y., Leung, F.W., Guth, P.H. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  39. Intracerebroventricular neuropeptide Y increases gastric and pancreatic secretion in the dog. Geoghegan, J.G., Lawson, D.C., Cheng, C.A., Opara, E., Taylor, I.L., Pappas, T.N. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
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