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Gene Review

Synpo  -  synaptopodin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Synaptopodin
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High impact information on Synpo


Biological context of Synpo


Anatomical context of Synpo

  • As synaptopodin is an actin-associated protein present in spine neck and implicated in the modulation of cell morphology, our results suggest that synaptopodin, by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, contributes to the morphological change in spine shape considered to be important for the maintenance of synaptic plasticity [3].
  • However, no immunolabeling for synaptopodin was observed in identified interneurons, confirming that the protein is mainly present in spine-bearing principal cells [4].
  • Synaptopodin-deficient mice do not form spine apparatuses, indicating a role of synaptopodin in the formation of this organelle [4].
  • We have recently shown that synaptopodin is localized to the spine apparatus, a characteristic organelle of dendritic spines on forebrain neurons [4].
  • Postembedding immunogold histochemistry demonstrated that synaptopodin is exclusively present in dendrites and spines, specifically in the spine neck in close association with the spine apparatus [5].

Associations of Synpo with chemical compounds

  • Several recent studies have focused on similarities between glomerular podocytes and neurons because the two cells share a specialized cytoskeletal organization and several expression-restricted proteins, such as nephrin and synaptopodin [1].

Other interactions of Synpo

  • Thus, the cell population from decapsulated glomeruli is distinctly different from that from encapsulated glomeruli, supporting the idea that polygonal cells originate from PECs, although immunocytochemical markers specific to podocytes in vivo such as WT1, synaptopodin, HSP27 and P-31 antigen were expressed significantly in the polygonal cells [6].
  • Immunogold labeling for actin-binding proteins demonstrated that alpha-actinin and synaptopodin were localized in the actin bundle, whereas cortactin was in the cortical actin network [7].
  • All cells from diabetic rats stained positive for the podocyte-specific proteins synaptopodin, nephrin, podocin and Glepp-1 and negative for mesangial (OX-7), tubular (Tamm-Horsfall protein) and endothelial (RECA) cell antigens [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Synpo


  1. Glomerular podocytes possess the synaptic vesicle molecule Rab3A and its specific effector rabphilin-3a. Rastaldi, M.P., Armelloni, S., Berra, S., Li, M., Pesaresi, M., Poczewski, H., Langer, B., Kerjaschki, D., Henger, A., Blattner, S.M., Kretzler, M., Wanke, R., D'Amico, G. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Localization of olfactomedin-related glycoprotein isoform (BMZ) in the golgi apparatus of glomerular podocytes in rat kidneys. Kondo, D., Yamamoto, T., Yaoita, E., Danielson, P.E., Kobayashi, H., Ohshiro, K., Funaki, H., Koyama, Y., Fujinaka, H., Kawasaki, K., Sutcliffe, J.G., Arakawa, M., Kihara, I. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulated expression of an actin-associated protein, synaptopodin, during long-term potentiation. Yamazaki, M., Matsuo, R., Fukazawa, Y., Ozawa, F., Inokuchi, K. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Postnatal development of synaptopodin expression in the rodent hippocampus. Czarnecki, K., Haas, C.A., Bas Orth, C., Deller, T., Frotscher, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Actin-associated protein synaptopodin in the rat hippocampal formation: localization in the spine neck and close association with the spine apparatus of principal neurons. Deller, T., Merten, T., Roth, S.U., Mundel, P., Frotscher, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Phenotypic modulation of parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule in culture. Yaoita, E., Kurihara, H., Sakai, T., Ohshiro, K., Yamamoto, T. Cell Tissue Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Actin filament organization of foot processes in rat podocytes. Ichimura, K., Kurihara, H., Sakai, T. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Viable podocytes detach in experimental diabetic nephropathy: potential mechanism underlying glomerulosclerosis. Petermann, A.T., Pippin, J., Krofft, R., Blonski, M., Griffin, S., Durvasula, R., Shankland, S.J. Nephron Exp. Nephrol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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