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Gene Review

SYNPO  -  synaptopodin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA1029, Synaptopodin
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Disease relevance of SYNPO


High impact information on SYNPO


Chemical compound and disease context of SYNPO


Biological context of SYNPO


Anatomical context of SYNPO

  • Synaptopodin (SYNPO) is a cytoskeletal protein that is preferentially located in mature dendritic spines, where it accumulates in the spine neck and closely associates with the spine apparatus [12].
  • We postulated that in Galloway-Mowat syndrome the mutation would be in a protein that is expressed both in podocytes and neurons, such as synaptopodin, GLEPP1, or nephrin [13].
  • From these results and experiments with cultured cells we conclude that synaptopodin represents a novel kind of proline-rich, actin-associated protein that may play a role in modulating actin-based shape and motility of dendritic spines and podocyte foot processes [7].
  • Expression of synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein, in the rat hippocampus after limbic epilepsy [9].
  • Synaptopodin immunoreactivity in the dendritic layers of CA3, in the hilus and in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) was initially reduced [9].

Associations of SYNPO with chemical compounds

  • Synaptopodin, GLEPP1, and nephrin were strongly expressed in normal kidney tissue [13].
  • Synaptopodin contains a high amount of proline ( approximately 20%) equally distributed along the protein, thus virtually excluding the formation of any globular domain [7].
  • Eight weeks after KA treatment Synaptopodin protein expression returned to control levels in dendritic layers of CA3 and in the entire molecular layer of the DG [9].
  • Greater synaptopodin expression in podocytes was associated with a significantly better response to steroid therapy (P < 0.05 for both L and A) [4].
  • A significant reduction, however, was only seen for synaptopodin immunoreactivity in stratum oriens and pyramidale of hippocampal CA1 subfield [14].

Other interactions of SYNPO

  • MAGI-1 and synaptopodin can also interact in vivo, as they can be immunoprecipitated together from HEK293 cell lysates [15].
  • NEPH1 and synaptopodin expression was detected only at the mRNA level [16].
  • When exposed to all nephrotic plasma samples (and a non-human serum control), nephrin podocin and CD2AP assumed a cytoplasmic distribution; nephrin and synaptopodin were selectively downregulated, and the relocation of nephrin induced by nephrotic plasma could be rescued back to the plasma membrane by co-incubation with non-nephrotic plasma [17].
  • Moreover, there was partial loss of synaptopodin and cyclin D1 expression in nonaffected glomeruli [18].
  • Hippocampi with neuronal densities comparable to those of sham-operated control animals were analyzed for dendritic marker proteins MAP2, MAP1B and synaptopodin, respectively [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SYNPO


  1. Myopodin, a synaptopodin homologue, is frequently deleted in invasive prostate cancers. Lin, F., Yu, Y.P., Woods, J., Cieply, K., Gooding, B., Finkelstein, P., Dhir, R., Krill, D., Becich, M.J., Michalopoulos, G., Finkelstein, S., Luo, J.H. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The dysregulated podocyte phenotype: a novel concept in the pathogenesis of collapsing idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HIV-associated nephropathy. Barisoni, L., Kriz, W., Mundel, P., D'Agati, V. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Posttransplantation relapse of FSGS is characterized by glomerular epithelial cell transdifferentiation. Bariéty, J., Bruneval, P., Hill, G., Irinopoulou, T., Mandet, C., Meyrier, A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Synaptopodin expression in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood. Srivastava, T., Garola, R.E., Whiting, J.M., Alon, U.S. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Critical role for Nef in HIV-1-induced podocyte dedifferentiation. Sunamoto, M., Husain, M., He, J.C., Schwartz, E.J., Klotman, P.E. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Synaptopodin orchestrates actin organization and cell motility via regulation of RhoA signalling. Asanuma, K., Yanagida-Asanuma, E., Faul, C., Tomino, Y., Kim, K., Mundel, P. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Synaptopodin: an actin-associated protein in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes. Mundel, P., Heid, H.W., Mundel, T.M., Krüger, M., Reiser, J., Kriz, W. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Glomerular expression of nephrin and synaptopodin, but not podocin, is decreased in kidney sections from women with preeclampsia. Garovic, V.D., Wagner, S.J., Petrovic, L.M., Gray, C.E., Hall, P., Sugimoto, H., Kalluri, R., Grande, J.P. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein, in the rat hippocampus after limbic epilepsy. Roth, S.U., Sommer, C., Mundel, P., Kiessling, M. Brain Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 tat induces hyperproliferation and dysregulation of renal glomerular epithelial cells. Conaldi, P.G., Bottelli, A., Baj, A., Serra, C., Fiore, L., Federico, G., Bussolati, B., Camussi, G. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Retinoic Acid Inhibits HIV-1-Induced Podocyte Proliferation through the cAMP Pathway. He, J.C., Lu, T.C., Fleet, M., Sunamoto, M., Husain, M., Fang, W., Neves, S., Chen, Y., Shankland, S., Iyengar, R., Klotman, P.E. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Synaptopodin, a molecule involved in the formation of the dendritic spine apparatus, is a dual actin/alpha-actinin binding protein. Kremerskothen, J., Plaas, C., Kindler, S., Frotscher, M., Barnekow, A. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Podocyte proteins in Galloway-Mowat syndrome. Srivastava, T., Whiting, J.M., Garola, R.E., Dasouki, M.J., Ruotsalainen, V., Tryggvason, K., Hamed, R., Alon, U.S. Pediatr. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Short-term ischemia usually used for ischemic preconditioning causes loss of dendritic integrity after long-term survival in the gerbil hippocampus. Tanay, E., Mundel, P., Sommer, C. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction of two actin-binding proteins, synaptopodin and alpha-actinin-4, with the tight junction protein MAGI-1. Patrie, K.M., Drescher, A.J., Welihinda, A., Mundel, P., Margolis, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Podocyte-associated proteins FAT, alpha-actinin-4 and filtrin are expressed in Langerhans islets of the pancreas. Rinta-Valkama, J., Palmén, T., Lassila, M., Holthöfer, H. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Nephrotic plasma alters slit diaphragm-dependent signaling and translocates nephrin, Podocin, and CD2 associated protein in cultured human podocytes. Coward, R.J., Foster, R.R., Patton, D., Ni, L., Lennon, R., Bates, D.O., Harper, S.J., Mathieson, P.W., Saleem, M.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Podocyte cell cycle regulation and proliferation in collapsing glomerulopathies. Barisoni, L., Mokrzycki, M., Sablay, L., Nagata, M., Yamase, H., Mundel, P. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Plasticity of synaptopodin and the spine apparatus organelle in the rat fascia dentata following entorhinal cortex lesion. Deller, T., Bas Orth, C., Vlachos, A., Merten, T., Del Turco, D., Dehn, D., Mundel, P., Frotscher, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C1)-dependent inflammatory response of podocytes in nephrotic syndrome glomerulopathies in children: an immunohistochemical approach. Ostalska-Nowicka, D., Zachwieja, J., Nowicki, M., Kaczmarek, E., Siwinska, A., Witt, M. Histopathology (2005) [Pubmed]
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