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Gene Review

CLSTN2  -  calsyntenin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ALC-GAMMA, Alc-gamma, Alcadein-gamma, CDHR13, CS2, ...
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Disease relevance of CLSTN2

  • Daily intakes at the highest percentiles for the general population reached a maximum of 2.0 microg CS2/kg body weight per day (upper band of the 95% confidence interval at P99.99) [1].

High impact information on CLSTN2

  • This region is further subdivided into the KS-rich domain and two adjacent CS-rich domains (CS1 and CS2) [2].
  • A single TMS pulse (110% resting motor threshold, RMT) to the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) (CS2) suppresses the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from a test pulse (TS) over the right motor cortex (M1), and facilitates MEPs from the left motor cortex [3].
  • Radiation hybrid mapping data indicate that CS-1 and CS-2 map to q2.1-2.5 of pig chromosome 8 (SSC8) and q2.4 of pig chromosome 14 (SSC14), respectively [4].
  • The mRNA expressions of both CS-1 and CS-2 are regulated in skeletal muscle similarly during postnatal development but not during prenatal development, indicating differences in function, additionally demonstrated by minute differences in cellular localization within Pig Kidney Epithelial cells (PK15) [4].
  • Reactions of group 3 transition metal atoms with CS2 and OCS: Matrix isolation infrared spectra and density-functional calculations of SMCS, SM-(eta2-CS), SMCO, and SM-(eta2-CO) in solid argon [5].

Biological context of CLSTN2

  • The results showed that both a low and a high level of methamidophos application (CS2 and CS3) and urea application (CS4) significantly decreased microbial biomass C (Cmic) by 41-83% compared with the control (CS1) [6].
  • Progress has included the trapping of intermediates formed during turnover of non-physiological substrates (e.g., alkynes, CS2) providing insights into how these molecules interact with the nitrogenase FeMo-cofactor active site [7].

Anatomical context of CLSTN2

  • In addition, the CFU (colony-forming unit) numbers of methamidophos metabolized bacteria in CS2 and CS3 also increased significantly by 86.1% and 188.9% compared with that of CS1 [6].
  • However, in one parasite line we were able to re-select for adhesion to bovine trachea CSA associated with transcription of two var genes, var-CS2 and varP [8].

Associations of CLSTN2 with chemical compounds

  • The present work demonstrates that keratan sulfate (KS) in the glycosaminoglycan-binding region of disc aggrecan is confined to the KS-rich domain of the core protein and is not present in association with chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the CS1 and CS2 domains [9].
  • The molecular dipole moment and its derivatives are determined from atomic charges, atomic dipoles, and their fluxes obtained from AIM formalism and calculated at the MP2(FC)/6-311++G(3d,3p) level for 16 molecules: 6 diatomic hydrides, CO, HCN, OCS, CO2, CS2, C2H2, C2N2, H2O, H2CO, and CH4 [10].
  • CS2, lower sulfides, thiophene, and sulfurized species are the common products during the ultrasonic irradiations [11].
  • Reaction of cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2] (dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) with CS2 and NaOH yields the first ruthenium dithiocarbonate complex, [Ru(kappa2-S2C=O)(dppm)2] [12].
  • [Ru(kappa2-S2C=O)(dppm)2] reacts with methyl iodide or [Me3O]BF4 to give [Ru(kappa2-S2COMe)(dppm)2]+, also obtained from the reaction of cis-[RuCl2dppm)2] with CS2 and NaOMe [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CLSTN2

  • The advantages of this single-shot technique were demonstrated by measuring the two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption in GaAs as well as the nonlinear refractive index of CS2 using a modified optical Kerr setup [13].


  1. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides--a probabilistic approach. Caldas, E.D., Tressou, J., Boon, P.E. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The glycosaminoglycan attachment regions of human aggrecan. Rodriguez, E., Roland, S.K., Plaas, A., Roughley, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Interactions between pairs of transcranial magnetic stimuli over the human left dorsal premotor cortex differ from those seen in primary motor cortex. Koch, G., Franca, M., Mochizuki, H., Marconi, B., Caltagirone, C., Rothwell, J.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of different expression patterns of calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2 in porcine muscle. Wang, H., Zhu, Z., Wang, H., Yang, S., Mo, D., Li, K. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Reactions of group 3 transition metal atoms with CS2 and OCS: Matrix isolation infrared spectra and density-functional calculations of SMCS, SM-(eta2-CS), SMCO, and SM-(eta2-CO) in solid argon. Baker, A.B., Andrews, L. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of methamidophos and urea application on microbial communities in soils as determined by microbial biomass and community level physiological profiles. Wang, M.C., Gong, M., Zang, H.B., Hua, X.M., Yao, J., Pang, Y.J., Yang, Y.H. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Breaking the N2 triple bond: insights into the nitrogenase mechanism. Barney, B.M., Lee, H.I., Dos Santos, P.C., Hoffman, B.M., Dean, D.R., Seefeldt, L.C. Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. VAR2CSA is the principal ligand for chondroitin sulfate A in two allogeneic isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Duffy, M.F., Maier, A.G., Byrne, T.J., Marty, A.J., Elliott, S.R., O'Neill, M.T., Payne, P.D., Rogerson, S.J., Cowman, A.F., Crabb, B.S., Brown, G.V. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The structure and degradation of aggrecan in human intervertebral disc. Roughley, P.J., Melching, L.I., Heathfield, T.F., Pearce, R.H., Mort, J.S. European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. An atomic charge-charge flux-dipole flux atom-in-molecule decomposition for molecular dipole-moment derivatives and infrared fundamental intensities. Haiduke, R.L., Bruns, R.E. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Ultrasonic cleavage of thioethers. Wu, Z., Ondruschka, B., Stark, A. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Synthesis and reactivity of the ruthenium(II) dithiocarbonate complex [Ru(kappa2-S2C=O)(dppm)2] (dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane). Wilton-Ely, J.D., Solanki, D., Hogarth, G. Inorganic chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Single-shot measurement of nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction. Jayabalan, J., Singh, A., Oak, S.M. Applied optics. (2006) [Pubmed]
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