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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Refractometry


High impact information on Refractometry

  • Here, we report measurements obtained with an extended surface forces apparatus, which makes use of fast spectral correlation to gain insight into the behavior of a thin film of cyclohexane confined within attoliter volumes, with simultaneous measurement of film thickness and refractive index [4].
  • Invisible liposomes: refractive index matching with sucrose enables flow dichroism assessment of peptide orientation in lipid vesicle membrane [5].
  • The potential of refractive index matching in vesicle LD as a general method for studying membrane protein structure was investigated for the membrane pore-forming oligopeptide gramicidin incorporated into the liposome membranes [5].
  • We have determined an optical extinction coefficient for caldesmon (E1%(280 nm) = 3.3) by determining its concentration from its refractive index which was measured in the analytical ultracentrifuge [6].
  • Because of the presence of TEM modes in the slits, for TM polarization such a system can be rigorously mapped into a high refractive index dielectric slab when the features are smaller than the wavelength of light [7].

Biological context of Refractometry

  • The coefficient was determined by use of an improved algorithm based on the Ciddor algorithm [Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996)], extended by us over the 0.20-0.23-microm wavelength range to evaluate the moist air refractive index as a function of wavelength, air pressure, temperature, water-vapor partial pressure, and CO2 volume concentration [8].
  • The new neuroendoscope includes a graded refractive index glass rod only 1.0 mm in diameter (Selfoc, Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Osaka), which provides a focal depth from 1 mm to infinity, as well as an extremely bright and wide visual field with an angle of 70 degrees [9].
  • Strabismus and any organic eye disease were excluded by orthoptic and ophthalmologic examination, consisting of biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy or refractometry, cover test or Hirschberg test and Lang Stereotest [10].

Anatomical context of Refractometry


Associations of Refractometry with chemical compounds

  • A morphologically stable PVK-based composite containing 40 wt % of ATOP-3 showed an excellent photorefractive response characterized by a refractive index modulation of Deltan approximately 0.007 and a gain coefficient of Gamma approximately 180 cm(-)(1) at a moderate electrical field strength of E = 35 V microm(-)(1) [15].
  • The negative dielectric constant of the silver nanoparticles may be decreasing the silica-silver nanodot composite refractive index below that of the water medium [16].
  • A cylindrical microcavity of 125 microm diam was surrounded by rhodamine 6G dye molecules in an ethanol solution of lower refractive index such that whispering gallery modes of the microcavity underwent laser oscillation when the dye molecules in the evanescent field region outside the cavity were excited by a second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser [17].
  • The dependence of the refractive index on RH was eliminated by treating the calcined films with trimethylchlorosilane [18].
  • In this Letter, we report the first fabrication and experimental verification of a transversely structured metal-dielectric-metal multilayer exhibiting a negative refractive index around 2 microm [19].

Gene context of Refractometry

  • The binding to immobilized tetrameric wt-hPAH resulted in a time-dependent increase in the refractive index (up to approx. 3 min at 25 degrees C) with an end point of approx. 75 RU (resonance units)/(pmol subunit/mm(2)) [20].
  • This report describes the first nondestructive method for measuring the refractive index of intact crystalline lenses based on the work of Chu (1977) [Electron Lett. 13, 736-738] and Barrell and Pask (1978) [Opt. Commun. 27, 230-234] for optical fibre preforms [21].
  • Combining the data from the light scattering, absorbance, and refractive index chromatograms allows us to determine the molecular weight of the protein component of the complex, and therefore to measure the number of bFGF molecules bound per heparin [22].
  • Spatial distributions of the projected values of the complex refractive index in the sample are reconstructed by processing near-field images collected at a fixed sample-to-detector distance using a polychromatic incident beam and an energy-sensitive area detector, such as a CCD used in the photon-counting spectroscopy mode [23].
  • Subjective refractometry (trial glasses), standard keratometry (Zeiss), and corneal topography analysis (TMS-1; Tomey) were performed before surgery, before removal of the first suture (15.2 +/- 4.2 months), and after removal of the second suture (21.4 +/- 5.6 months) [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Refractometry


  1. Posterior corneal curvature changes after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis. Seitz, B., Torres, F., Langenbucher, A., Behrens, A., Suárez, E. Ophthalmology (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The role of water desorption on optical clearing of biotissue: studied with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Xu, X., Wang, R.K. Medical physics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of refeeding following short-term deprivation of feed or water, or both, on selected physiological parameters for broiler chickens. Chamblee, T.N., Morgan, G.W., Schultz, C.D. Poult. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Density fluctuations under confinement: when is a fluid not a fluid? Heuberger, M., Zäch, M., Spencer, N.D. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Invisible liposomes: refractive index matching with sucrose enables flow dichroism assessment of peptide orientation in lipid vesicle membrane. Ardhammar, M., Lincoln, P., Nordén, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Caldesmon. Molecular weight and subunit composition by analytical ultracentrifugation. Graceffa, P., Wang, C.L., Stafford, W.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction. Shen, J.T., Catrysse, P.B., Fan, S. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Improved algorithm for calculations of Rayleigh-scattering optical depth in standard atmospheres. Tomasi, C., Vitale, V., Petkov, B., Lupi, A., Cacciari, A. Applied optics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Development and clinical usefulness of a new neuroendoscope system for CT-guided stereotactic brain surgery. Ebina, K., Andoh, A., Takahashi, T., Iwabuchi, T. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Preliminary report: examination of young children with Lea symbols. Becker, R.H., Hübsch, S.H., Gräf, M.H., Kaufmann, H. Strabismus (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Use of the refractive index to measure the adequacy of glycerol removal from previously frozen erythrocytes. Umlas, J., O'Neill, T.P. Transfusion (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Resistance, germination, and permeability correlates of Bacillus megaterium spores successively divested of integument layers. Koshikawa, T., Beaman, T.C., Pankratz, H.S., Nakashio, S., Corner, T.R., Gerhardt, P. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of intra-articular gentamicin sulfate on normal equine synovial membrane. Stover, S.M., Pool, R.R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. In vivo imaging of mammalian cochlear blood flow using fluorescence microendoscopy. Monfared, A., Blevins, N.H., Cheung, E.L., Jung, J.C., Popelka, G., Schnitzer, M.J. Otol. Neurotol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. ATOP dyes. optimization of a multifunctional merocyanine chromophore for high refractive index modulation in photorefractive materials. Würthner, F., Yao, S., Schilling, J., Wortmann, R., Redi-Abshiro, M., Mecher, E., Gallego-Gomez, F., Meerholz, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Photochemical incorporation of silver quantum dots in monodisperse silica colloids for photonic crystal applications. Wang, W., Asher, S.A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Cylindrical microcavity laser based on the evanescent-wave-coupled gain. Moon, H.J., Chough, Y.T., An, K. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Preparation of thin silica films with controlled thickness and tunable refractive index. Rouse, J.H., Ferguson, G.S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials. Zhang, S., Fan, W., Panoiu, N.C., Malloy, K.J., Osgood, R.M., Brueck, S.R. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Substrate-induced conformational transition in human phenylalanine hydroxylase as studied by surface plasmon resonance analyses: the effect of terminal deletions, substrate analogues and phosphorylation. Stokka, A.J., Flatmark, T. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Measurement of refractive index in an intact crystalline lens. Campbell, M.C. Vision Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Stoichiometry of heparin binding to basic fibroblast growth factor. Arakawa, T., Wen, J., Philo, J.S. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Quantitative in-line phase-contrast imaging with multienergy X rays. Gureyev, T.E., Mayo, S., Wilkins, S.W., Paganin, D., Stevenson, A.W. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Nonmechanical corneal trephination with the excimer laser improves outcome after penetrating keratoplasty. Seitz, B., Langenbucher, A., Kus, M.M., Küchle, M., Naumann, G.O. Ophthalmology (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Rapid and simultaneous quantification of rhamnose, mannitol, and lactulose in urine by HPLC for estimating intestinal permeability in pediatric practice. Miki, K., Butler, R., Moore, D., Davidson, G. Clin. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. The large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan versican in mammalian vitreous. Reardon, A., Heinegård, D., McLeod, D., Sheehan, J.K., Bishop, P.N. Matrix Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Determination of glycerol in pharmaceutical preparations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a refractive index detector. Breslin, F., Stephenson, G.P. J. Chromatogr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm. Flock, S.T., Wilson, B.C., Patterson, M.S. Medical physics. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Liquid chromatographic determination of total and beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid in lathyrus sativus seeds using both refractive index and bioelectrochemical detection. Yigzaw, Y., Larsson, N., Gorton, L., Ruzgas, T., Solomon, T. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
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