The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Pillaron     (amino-methylsulfanyl- phosphoryl)oxymethane

Synonyms: Tahmabon, Filitox, Hamidop, MONITOR, Patrole, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of MONITOR


Psychiatry related information on MONITOR


High impact information on MONITOR

  • Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase with methamidophos also enhanced transmission, demonstrating a similar effect of endogenous acetylcholine. nAChR activation also enhanced transmission by dorsal root entry zone stimulation, suggesting that alpha7 nAChRs on the central terminals of DRG afferents mediate this effect [9].
  • Here we describe experiments which allowed to resolve some of the less well understood reaction pathways of phosphylation and "aging" of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) involving phosphoroamidates (P-N agents) such as tabun or the widely used pesticide methamidophos [10].
  • Reactions of the N- and O-methyl derivatives of MeO(MeS)P(O)NHOH and (MeO)2P(O)NHOH are consistent with proposed mechanisms A and B. N-Hydroxymethamidophos is less potent than methamidophos as an AChE inhibitor and toxicant possibly associated with its rapid hydrolysis [11].
  • We show in the present investigation that a carboxyamidase activates acephate in mice and in turn undergoes inhibition by the hydrolysis product, i.e., methamidophos; thus, the bioactivation is started but immediately turned off [1].
  • The bone marrow transplantation survivors demonstrated more denial and avoidance and fewer arousal symptoms than has been noted in children traumatized by a violent life threat, such as a sniper attack [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of MONITOR


Biological context of MONITOR

  • For methamidophos, we show that phosphylation of AChE involves elimination of the thiomethyl moiety and that the spontaneous reactivation of the resulting organophosphate adduct generates the phosphorus free AChE active site Ser-peptide [10].
  • The rate of phosphorylation of insect and rat AChE was similar in the presence of methamidophos [15].
  • The inhibition potency [as measured by Ki and the concentration required to cause 50% inhibition in AChE or ChE activity (IC50 values)] of methamidophos, but not of acephate, increased by lengthening the enzyme-inhibitor incubation time [16].
  • An extensive QSAR study may help in determining the mode of action of Met in vivo and in vitro and provide a rational for its high insecticidal toxicity [17].
  • The calculated, acute oral LD50 of acephate and methamidophos to dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) was 106 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg, respectively [18].

Anatomical context of MONITOR


Associations of MONITOR with other chemical compounds


Gene context of MONITOR

  • In addition, the CFU (colony-forming unit) numbers of methamidophos metabolized bacteria in CS2 and CS3 also increased significantly by 86.1% and 188.9% compared with that of CS1 [26].
  • In vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of impurities and chirality on methamidophos-induced neuropathy target esterase aging [27].
  • Moreover, the levels of NTE inhibited by methamidophos which can be promoted to neuropathy are lower than those required for classic protective chemicals and higher than those of classic neuropathic OPs [28].
  • Genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Drosophila melanogaster (dm) and from commercial sources, Electric eel (ee), Bovine erythrocites (be) and Human erythrocites (he), were investigated as biological receptors for the detection of methamidophos pesticide based on inhibition studies [29].
  • Most engineered variant of AChE from dm showed enhanced sensitivity toward methamidophos pesticide [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MONITOR


  1. Acephate insecticide toxicity: safety conferred by inhibition of the bioactivating carboxyamidase by the metabolite methamidophos. Mahajna, M., Quistad, G.B., Casida, J.E. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Food poisoning due to methamidophos-contaminated vegetables. Wu, M.L., Deng, J.F., Tsai, W.J., Ger, J., Wong, S.S., Li, H.P. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Organophosphate polyneuropathy and neuropathy target esterase: studies with methamidophos and its resolved optical isomers. Lotti, M., Moretto, A., Bertolazzi, M., Peraica, M., Fioroni, F. Arch. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Elevated quantitative vibrotactile threshold among workers previously poisoned with methamidophos and other organophosphate pesticides. McConnell, R., Keifer, M., Rosenstock, L. Am. J. Ind. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Tactile vibration thresholds after acute poisonings with organophosphate insecticides. Miranda, J., McConnell, R., Delgado, E., Cuadra, R., Keifer, M., Wesseling, C., Torres, E., Lundberg, I. International journal of occupational and environmental health : official journal of the International Commission on Occupational Health. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Children's PTSD reactions one year after a sniper attack at their school. Nader, K., Pynoos, R., Fairbanks, L., Frederick, C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Acute stress disorder, alcohol use, and perception of safety among hospital staff after the sniper attacks. Grieger, T.A., Fullerton, C.S., Ursano, R.J., Reeves, J.J. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The sniper and the public's mental health. Jameson, M.G. Maryland medicine : MM : a publication of MEDCHI, the Maryland State Medical Society. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Short- and long-term enhancement of excitatory transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Genzen, J.R., McGehee, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Resolving pathways of interaction of covalent inhibitors with the active site of acetylcholinesterases: MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of various nerve agent phosphyl adducts. Elhanany, E., Ordentlich, A., Dgany, O., Kaplan, D., Segall, Y., Barak, R., Velan, B., Shafferman, A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxidative bioactivation of methamidophos insecticide: synthesis of N-hydroxymethamidophos (a candidate metabolite) and its proposed alternative reactions involving N-->O rearrangement or fragmentation through a metaphosphate analogue. Mahajna, M., Casida, J.E. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Stress responses after pediatric bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results of a prospective longitudinal study. Stuber, M.L., Nader, K., Yasuda, P., Pynoos, R.S., Cohen, S. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Single and binary-combined toxicity of methamidophos, acetochlor and copper acting on earthworms Esisenia foelide. Liang, J., Zhou, Q. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The Fort Bragg Sniper Attack and Mental Health Response. Hall, D.P., Rowe, B.A. Military medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular properties and inhibition kinetics of acetylcholinesterase obtained from rat brain and cockroach ganglion. Singh, A.K. Toxicology and industrial health. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Kinetic analysis of inhibition of brain and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase by acephate or methamidophos. Singh, A.K. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. QSAR for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and toxicity of two classes of phosphoramidothioates. Spassova, D.P., Singh, A.K. SAR and QSAR in environmental research. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Toxicity of acephate and methamidophos to dark-eyed juncos. Zinkl, J.G., Roberts, R.B., Shea, P.J., Lasmanis, J. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Methamidophos transiently inhibits neuronal nicotinic receptors of rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons via open channel block. Di Angelantonio, S., Bernardi, G., Mercuri, N.B. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Paternal effects from methamidophos administration in mice. Burruel, V.R., Raabe, O.G., Overstreet, J.W., Wilson, B.W., Wiley, L.M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibition of human erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases by methamidophos. Robinson, C.P., Beiergrohslein, D. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparison of aldicarb and methamidophos neurotoxicity at different ages in the rat: behavioral and biochemical parameters. Moser, V.C. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. QSAR for the organophosphate-induced inhibition and 'aging' of the enzyme neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Singh, A.K. SAR and QSAR in environmental research. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Protective effect of pralidoxime on muscle fiber necrosis induced by organophosphate compounds. Cavaliere, M.J., Puga, F.R., Calore, E.E., Calore, N.M., Pelegrino, J.R., da Rosa, A.R., Weg, R. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Reactivation of acetylcholinesterase inhibited by methamidophos and analogous (di)methylphosphoramidates. de Jong, L.P., Wolring, G.Z., Benschop, H.P. Arch. Toxicol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of methamidophos and urea application on microbial communities in soils as determined by microbial biomass and community level physiological profiles. Wang, M.C., Gong, M., Zang, H.B., Hua, X.M., Yao, J., Pang, Y.J., Yang, Y.H. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of impurities and chirality on methamidophos-induced neuropathy target esterase aging. Kellner, T., Sanborn, J., Wilson, B. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Interactions between neuropathy target esterase and its inhibitors and the development of polyneuropathy. Lotti, M., Moretto, A., Capodicasa, E., Bertolazzi, M., Peraica, M., Scapellato, M.L. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparative investigation between acetylcholinesterase obtained from commercial sources and genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster: application in amperometric biosensors for methamidophos pesticide detection. de Oliveira Marques, P.R., Nunes, G.S., dos Santos, T.C., Andreescu, S., Marty, J.L. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Levels of metamidophos in air and vegetables after greenhouse applications by gas chromatography. Egea González, F.J., Martínez Vidal, J.L., Castro Cano, M.L., Martínez Galera, M. Journal of chromatography. A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Absence of long-term behavioral effects after sub-chronic administration of low doses of methamidophos in male and female rats. Temerowski, M., van der Staay, F.J. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Selection of a battery of rapid toxicity sensors for drinking water evaluation. van der Schalie, W.H., James, R.R., Gargan, T.P. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities