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MeSH Review

Motor Cortex

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Disease relevance of Motor Cortex


Psychiatry related information on Motor Cortex


High impact information on Motor Cortex

  • We report a marked decrease of CNTF in the ventral horn of spinal cord in ALS, with no change in cerebral motor cortex [11].
  • Thresholds and latencies for motor cortex stimulation to excite thumb flexor muscles and the resulting fast mechanical responses were the same in both ON and OFF conditions, even though the patients were unable to execute fast thumb flexion movements voluntarily when OFF [12].
  • Amphetamine, haloperidol, and experience interact to affect rate of recovery after motor cortex injury [13].
  • As long as 150 years ago, when Fritz and Hitzig demonstrated the electrical excitability of the motor cortex, scientists and fiction writers were considering the possibility of interfacing a machine with the human brain [14].
  • In addition, the injection of muscimol, a GABA agonist, into motor cortex resulted in an increase in the error rate during sequence production, without concomitant effects on nonsequenced motor performance [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Motor Cortex


Biological context of Motor Cortex


Anatomical context of Motor Cortex

  • Currents mediated by a glutamate transporter cloned from human motor cortex were measured in Xenopus oocytes [26].
  • 2. At PND 8, many of these neurons--in particular, those in lamina Va of the barrel field area--project simultaneously across the corpus callosum and to the ipsilateral motor cortex [27].
  • Functional imaging of the brain in primary dystonia has suggested reduced pallidal inhibition of the thalamus with consequent overactivity of medial and prefrontal cortical areas and underactivity of the primary motor cortex during movements [28].
  • The contributions of motor cortex, nigrostriatal dopamine and caudate-putamen to skilled forelimb use in the rat [29].
  • We used [11C]raclopride and PET to measure changes in extracellular dopamine concentration following rTMS of the motor cortex in six healthy human subjects. rTMS of the left primary motor cortex caused a reduction in [11C]raclopride binding in the left putamen compared with rTMS of the left occipital cortex [30].

Associations of Motor Cortex with chemical compounds

  • We conducted a preclinical study of electrical interference in the primary motor cortex using a chronic MPTP primate model in which dopamine depletion was progressive and regularly documented using 18F-DOPA positron tomography [31].
  • This finding demonstrates a cortico-cortical mechanism subserving the transformation from the geometrical properties of an object to the outputs from motor cortex before grasp that is specific for object-driven movements [32].
  • In these studies we sought to extend our understanding of glutamate transporters in ALS by examining the mRNA for each transporter subtype in ALS motor cortex [33].
  • We conclude that the changes in intracortical excitability are caused by GABA-controlled interneuronal circuits in the motor cortex while changes in motor threshold are dependent on ion channel conductivity and may reflect membrane excitability [34].
  • The effects of repeated cocaine administration were not mimicked by repeated injections of the local anesthetic lidocaine and were not observed in neurons within the motor cortex, indicating that they did not result from local anesthetic actions of cocaine [35].

Gene context of Motor Cortex

  • The highest MMP-9 (100-kDa) activities in ALS were found in the motor cortex and thoracic and lumbar cord specimens [36].
  • We found a specific reduction of TrkB receptors in transgenic exon-1 and full-length knock-in HD mouse models and also in the motor cortex and caudate nucleus of HD brains [37].
  • In 12 brains of individuals without neurological disease glial cells showing moderate immunoreactivity for both GFAP and S-100 protein were uniformly distributed in the primary motor cortex in the upper regions of layer I and layer II [38].
  • Thus, the activation of PKA and the ERK1/2 cascade are required for two forms of chemically induced long-lasting increases of synaptic efficacy in slices of rat motor cortex [39].
  • BDNF levels were progressively decreased by 1 Hz rTMS in healthy subjects; there was no effect of 1 Hz rTMS on BDNF plasma levels in ALS patients, an effect probably due to the loss of motor cortex pyramidal cells [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Motor Cortex


  1. Pharmacologically modulated fMRI--cortical responsiveness to levodopa in drug-naive hemiparkinsonian patients. Buhmann, C., Glauche, V., Stürenburg, H.J., Oechsner, M., Weiller, C., Büchel, C. Brain (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Alumina cream-induced focal motor epilepsy in cats. IV. Thickness and cellularity of layers in the perilesional motor cortex. Feria-Velasco, A., Olivares, N., Rivas, F., Velasco, M., Velasco, F. Arch. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Monoamine oxidase-B in motor cortex: changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ekblom, J., Jossan, S.S., Gillberg, P.G., Oreland, L., Aquilonius, S.M. Neuroscience (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Anticonvulsant effects of localized chronic infusions of GABA in cortical and reticular structures of baboons. Silva-Barrat, C., Brailowsky, S., Riche, D., Menini, C. Exp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Electrophysiological and positron emission studies in a patient with cortical myoclonus, epilepsia partialis continua and motor epilepsy. Cowan, J.M., Rothwell, J.C., Wise, R.J., Marsden, C.D. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Synaptogenesis and Fos expression in the motor cortex of the adult rat after motor skill learning. Kleim, J.A., Lussnig, E., Schwarz, E.R., Comery, T.A., Greenough, W.T. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Abnormalities of motor cortex excitability preceding movement in patients with dystonia. Gilio, F., Currà, A., Inghilleri, M., Lorenzano, C., Suppa, A., Manfredi, M., Berardelli, A. Brain (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibitory and excitatory intracortical circuits across the human sleep-wake cycle using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Salih, F., Khatami, R., Steinheimer, S., Hummel, O., Kühn, A., Grosse, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Dopamine modulation of glutamate metabotropic receptors in conditioned reaction of sensory motor cortex neurons of the cat. Storozhuk, V.M., Khorevin, V.I., Rozumna, N.M., Villa, A.E., Tetko, I.V. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Motor activity induced by disinhibition of the primary motor cortex of the rat is blocked by a non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist. Castro-Alamancos, M.A., Borrell, J. Neurosci. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Regional changes of ciliary neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in post mortem spinal cord and cerebral cortex from patients with motor disease. Anand, P., Parrett, A., Martin, J., Zeman, S., Foley, P., Swash, M., Leigh, P.N., Cedarbaum, J.M., Lindsay, R.M., Williams-Chestnut, R.E. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. The corticomotoneurone connection is normal in Parkinson's disease. Dick, J.P., Cowan, J.M., Day, B.L., Berardelli, A., Kachi, T., Rothwell, J.C., Marsden, C.D. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Amphetamine, haloperidol, and experience interact to affect rate of recovery after motor cortex injury. Feeney, D.M., Gonzalez, A., Law, W.A. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Brain-machine interfaces: computational demands and clinical needs meet basic neuroscience. Mussa-Ivaldi, F.A., Miller, L.E. Trends Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Anticipatory activity in primary motor cortex codes memorized movement sequences. Lu, X., Ashe, J. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Motor cortical control of cardiovascular bulbar neurones projecting to spinal autonomic areas. Viltart, O., Mullier, O., Bernet, F., Poulain, P., Ba-M'Hamed, S., Sequeira, H. J. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Behavioral deficits induced by local injection of bicuculline and muscimol into the primate motor and premotor cortex. Matsumura, M., Sawaguchi, T., Oishi, T., Ueki, K., Kubota, K. J. Neurophysiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Paradoxical effects of acute ethanolism in experimental brain injury. Kelly, D.F., Lee, S.M., Pinanong, P.A., Hovda, D.A. J. Neurosurg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Topographical distribution of propagation of seizure activity in the basal ganglia during focal motor seizures in the monkey. Hosokawa, S., Kato, M., Kuroiwa, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Experimental secondarily generalized convulsive status epilepticus induced by D,L-homocysteine thiolactone. Walton, N.Y., Treiman, D.M. Epilepsy Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Modulation of plasticity in human motor cortex after forearm ischemic nerve block. Ziemann, U., Corwell, B., Cohen, L.G. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Corticospinal tract conduction time in multiple sclerosis. Mills, K.R., Murray, N.M. Ann. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Shifts in striatal responsivity evoked by chronic stimulation of dopamine and glutamate systems. Canales, J.J., Capper-Loup, C., Hu, D., Choe, E.S., Upadhyay, U., Graybiel, A.M. Brain (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Alterations in G(1) to S phase cell-cycle regulators during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ranganathan, S., Bowser, R. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Motor-learning impairment by amantadine in healthy volunteers. Hadj Tahar, A., Blanchet, P.J., Doyon, J. Neuropsychopharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Kinetics of a human glutamate transporter. Wadiche, J.I., Arriza, J.L., Amara, S.G., Kavanaugh, M.P. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Ontogenetic changes in the projections of neocortical neurons. Ivy, G.O., Killackey, H.P. J. Neurosci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. The pathophysiology of primary dystonia. Berardelli, A., Rothwell, J.C., Hallett, M., Thompson, P.D., Manfredi, M., Marsden, C.D. Brain (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. The contributions of motor cortex, nigrostriatal dopamine and caudate-putamen to skilled forelimb use in the rat. Whishaw, I.Q., O'Connor, W.T., Dunnett, S.B. Brain (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Strafella, A.P., Paus, T., Fraraccio, M., Dagher, A. Brain (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Functional recovery in a primate model of Parkinson's disease following motor cortex stimulation. Drouot, X., Oshino, S., Jarraya, B., Besret, L., Kishima, H., Remy, P., Dauguet, J., Lefaucheur, J.P., Dollé, F., Condé, F., Bottlaender, M., Peschanski, M., Kéravel, Y., Hantraye, P., Palfi, S. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. A cortico-cortical mechanism mediating object-driven grasp in humans. Cattaneo, L., Voss, M., Brochier, T., Prabhu, G., Wolpert, D.M., Lemon, R.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Glutamate transporter gene expression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motor cortex. Bristol, L.A., Rothstein, J.D. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on motor cortex excitability in humans: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Ziemann, U., Lönnecker, S., Steinhoff, B.J., Paulus, W. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Whole-cell plasticity in cocaine withdrawal: reduced sodium currents in nucleus accumbens neurons. Zhang, X.F., Hu, X.T., White, F.J. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Matrix metalloproteinases in the neocortex and spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Lim, G.P., Backstrom, J.R., Cullen, M.J., Miller, C.A., Atkinson, R.D., Tökés, Z.A. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Reduced expression of the TrkB receptor in Huntington's disease mouse models and in human brain. Ginés, S., Bosch, M., Marco, S., Gavaldà, N., Díaz-Hernández, M., Lucas, J.J., Canals, J.M., Alberch, J. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. A distinctive distribution of reactive astroglia in the precentral cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Kamo, H., Haebara, H., Akiguchi, I., Kameyama, M., Kimura, H., McGeer, P.L. Acta Neuropathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Chemically-induced long-term potentiation in rat motor cortex involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade. Grzegorzewska, M., Przybylo, M., Litynska, A., Hess, G. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and BDNF plasma levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Angelucci, F., Oliviero, A., Pilato, F., Saturno, E., Dileone, M., Versace, V., Musumeci, G., Batocchi, A.P., Tonali, P.A., Di Lazzaro, V. Neuroreport (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. Toward establishing a therapeutic window for rTMS by theta burst stimulation. Paulus, W. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  42. Concurrent pharmacological MRI and in situ microdialysis of cocaine reveal a complex relationship between the central hemodynamic response and local dopamine concentration. Schwarz, A.J., Zocchi, A., Reese, T., Gozzi, A., Garzotti, M., Varnier, G., Curcuruto, O., Sartori, I., Girlanda, E., Biscaro, B., Crestan, V., Bertani, S., Heidbreder, C., Bifone, A. Neuroimage (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. On the human sensorimotor-cortex beta rhythm: sources and modeling. Jensen, O., Goel, P., Kopell, N., Pohja, M., Hari, R., Ermentrout, B. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  44. High affinity (3H) beta-alanine uptake by scar margins of ferric chloride-induced epileptogenic foci in rat isocortex. Robitaille, Y., Sherwin, A. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  45. Ketamine increases human motor cortex excitability to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Di Lazzaro, V., Oliviero, A., Profice, P., Pennisi, M.A., Pilato, F., Zito, G., Dileone, M., Nicoletti, R., Pasqualetti, P., Tonali, P.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
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