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Gene Review

TRD  -  T cell receptor delta locus

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: TCRD, TCRDV1, TRD@
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Disease relevance of TRD@


High impact information on TRD@


Biological context of TRD@

  • The clonal TCRB, TCRG and TCRD gene rearrangements were analyzed for gene segment usage and for the size and composition of their junctional regions [10].
  • IMGT/GeneInfo: T cell receptor gamma TRG and delta TRD genes in database give access to all TR potential V(D)J recombinations [11].
  • As a result of this recombination NKX2-5 was placed under influence of the TRD enhancer, resulting in strong ectopic NKX2-5 expression [3].
  • HOXA cluster deregulation in T-ALL associated with both a TCRD-HOXA and a CALM-AF10 chromosomal translocation [12].
  • TRD significantly reduces the pathogenicity of prokaryotes, leading to a degeneration of the bacterial wall, and binds free lipoplysaccharides (LPSs) and exotoxins [13].

Anatomical context of TRD@

  • We resequenced all 57 variable (V) genes in the human T cell receptor alpha and delta (TRA/TRD) locus in 40 individuals of Northern European, Mexican, African-American and Chinese descent [14].
  • Whereas IGK-Kde and TCRD rearrangements were rare, TCRG rearrangements were present in 50% of cases and involved mainly Vgamma11 or Vgamma9 together with a Jgamma1.3./2.3 gene segment, an unusual combination among t(4;11)-negative B-cell precursor ALL [15].
  • Expression of NKX2-5 was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in the T-ALL case with the NKX2-5-TRD rearrangement, 18 other cases of T-ALL, three T-ALL derived cell lines, two non-hematopoietic cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six healthy individuals and sorted thymocyte subsets [3].
  • We have analyzed, in 19 CD3- natural killer cell clones, the genomic organization of the T-cell receptor delta locus with two distinct V delta probes, V delta 1 and V delta 2 [16].

Associations of TRD@ with chemical compounds

  • Taurolidine [bis(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiadiazinyl-4)-methane (TRD)], a product derived from the aminosulfoacid taurin, was first described as an anti-bacterial substance [13].
  • Although preliminary, these results suggest a possible role for the combination of duloxetine and bupropion for TRD [17].
  • Our objective was to assess the effectiveness and safety of the combination of duloxetine and bupropion for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TRD) [17].

Other interactions of TRD@


  1. Vdelta2-Jalpha rearrangements are frequent in precursor-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia but rare in normal lymphoid cells. Szczepanski, T., van der Velden, V.H., Hoogeveen, P.G., de Bie, M., Jacobs, D.C., van Wering, E.R., van Dongen, J.J. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The incidence of T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia is related to immunophenotype and fusion oncogene expression. Meleshko, A.N., Belevtsev, M.V., Savitskaja, T.V., Potapnev, M.P. Leuk. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of a novel recombination between the homeobox gene NKX2-5 and the TRD locus in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia on activation of the NKX2-5 gene. Przybylski, G.K., Dik, W.A., Grabarczyk, P., Wanzeck, J., Chudobska, P., Jankowski, K., von Bergh, A., van Dongen, J.J., Schmidt, C.A., Langerak, A.W. Haematologica (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Organization of the T-cell receptor delta locus by deletional analysis of acute lymphoblastic leukemias and leukemic cell lines. Griesinger, F., Younger, P.W., Kersey, J.H. Leukemia (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. A T cell-specific transcriptional enhancer within the human T cell receptor delta locus. Redondo, J.M., Hata, S., Brocklehurst, C., Krangel, M.S. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the T cell receptor delta locus (TCRD). Jordan, S.A., McWilliam, P., O'Briain, D.S., Humphries, P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Erythroid expression of the 'helix-loop-helix' gene, SCL. Green, A.R., Salvaris, E., Begley, C.G. Oncogene (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. An STS in the human T-cell receptor delta locus located at 14q11. Chuchana, P., Bernard, F., Lefranc, G., Lefranc, M.P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutational analysis of the catalytic domain of the murine Dnmt3a DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferase. Gowher, H., Loutchanwoot, P., Vorobjeva, O., Handa, V., Jurkowska, R.Z., Jurkowski, T.P., Jeltsch, A. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Human T-cell lines with well-defined T-cell receptor gene rearrangements as controls for the BIOMED-2 multiplex polymerase chain reaction tubes. Sandberg, Y., Verhaaf, B., van Gastel-Mol, E.J., Wolvers-Tettero, I.L., de Vos, J., Macleod, R.A., Noordzij, J.G., Dik, W.A., van Dongen, J.J., Langerak, A.W. Leukemia (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. IMGT/GeneInfo: T cell receptor gamma TRG and delta TRD genes in database give access to all TR potential V(D)J recombinations. Baum, T.P., Hierle, V., Pasqual, N., Bellahcene, F., Chaume, D., Lefranc, M.P., Jouvin-Marche, E., Marche, P.N., Demongeot, J. BMC Bioinformatics (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. HOXA cluster deregulation in T-ALL associated with both a TCRD-HOXA and a CALM-AF10 chromosomal translocation. Bergeron, J., Clappier, E., Cauwelier, B., Dastugue, N., Millien, C., Delabesse, E., Beldjord, K., Speleman, F., Soulier, J., Macintyre, E., Asnafi, V. Leukemia (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Taurolidine--a new drug with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects. Jacobi, C.A., Menenakos, C., Braumann, C. Anticancer Drugs (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Sequence diversity, natural selection and linkage disequilibrium in the human T cell receptor alpha/delta locus. Mackelprang, R., Livingston, R.J., Eberle, M.A., Carlson, C.S., Yi, Q., Akey, J.M., Nickerson, D.A. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(4;11) in children 1 year and older: The 'big sister' of the infant disease? Mann, G., Cazzaniga, G., van der Velden, V.H., Flohr, T., Csinady, E., Paganin, M., Schrauder, A., Dohnal, A.M., Schrappe, M., Biondi, A., Gadner, H., van Dongen, J.J., Panzer-Grümayer, E.R. Leukemia (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. The T-cell receptor V delta genes predominantly used by human peripheral gamma/delta+ T lymphocytes are not rearranged in CD3- natural killer cells. Roman-Roman, S., Baixeras, E., Genevée, C., Hercend, T., Triebel, F. Hum. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. The combination of duloxetine and bupropion for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Papakostas, G.I., Worthington, J.J., Iosifescu, D.V., Kinrys, G., Burns, A.M., Fisher, L.B., Homberger, C.H., Mischoulon, D., Fava, M. Depression and anxiety. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. T cell receptor delta locus polymorphism in rheumatoid arthritis. Vandevyver, C., Geusens, P., Cassiman, J.J., Raus, J. Eur. J. Immunogenet. (1994) [Pubmed]
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