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Gene Review

TRG  -  T cell receptor gamma locus

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: TCRG, TRG@
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Disease relevance of TRG@


High impact information on TRG@

  • The interleukin 7 receptor is required for T cell receptor gamma locus accessibility to the V(D)J recombinase [4].
  • T cell rearranging gene gamma (TRG gamma) and T cell antigen receptor beta (TCR beta) chain gene rearrangement and transcription were studied in a series of patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), in which the Ig H chain genes are rearranged and the surface phenotype reproduces the stages of normal pre-B maturation [5].
  • Furthermore, evidence of TCR-beta and/or TRG-gamma gene rearrangement was observed in four AML, all of which belonged to the Igh-rearranged TdT+ group [6].
  • We also show that in B-lineage ALL, the cells probably use the same V gamma genes for TRG gamma rearrangements as the malignant cells in T-ALL and the polyclonal T cells [5].
  • The correlations between surface phenotype, rearrangement of TRG gamma, TCR beta, and Ig H chain genes were analyzed [5].

Biological context of TRG@

  • The clonal TCRB, TCRG and TCRD gene rearrangements were analyzed for gene segment usage and for the size and composition of their junctional regions [7].
  • Moreover, we analyze the TCRG haplotypes in four different populations (French, Lebanese, Tunisian, and Black African) to underline their interest for population genetics [8].
  • Only TRG1@ is included within a region of homology with human TRG locus on chromosome 7, thus TRG2@ locus appears to be peculiar to ruminants [9].
  • We have identified such negative cis-acting sequences in the 3' non-coding region of the human TcR gamma (TRG) locus, upstream of an enhancer located at 6.5 kb of the TcR C gamma 2 gene (TRGC2) [10].
  • Altogether, 83% of TCRG gene rearrangements involved either the most upstream Vgamma2 gene (including four cases with interstitial deletion of 170 bp in Vgamma2) and/or the most downstream Jgamma2.3 segment, which can be perceived as 'end-stage' recombinations [2].

Anatomical context of TRG@

  • The human T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) genes [11].
  • TCRG and TCRB mRNAs were expressed in the cells of precursor T- but not B-cell leukemia patients studied [12].
  • On Southern blot analysis, the mature T-cell leukemia cells studied had rearranged TCRG and TCRB while IGHJ remained as in the germ line [12].
  • Trans-rearrangements between TCRG and TCRD loci, similar in structure and frequency to those observed previously in human lymphoid tissues, were demonstrated in normal mouse thymus by PCR with crossed V gamma/J delta and V delta/J gamma primer pairs [13].
  • A total of 54 primers was developed (1) to amplify rearrangements of the TCRD, TCRG, and IGK (Kde) genes as well as TAL1 deletions; (2) to sequence the junctional regions and breakpoint fusion regions; and (3) to perform MRD detection in bone marrow or peripheral blood samples during follow-up of ALL patients [14].

Associations of TRG@ with chemical compounds

  • The RR was 1.67 for allele C1 at TCRA1, 3.35 for allele D2 at TCRA2, 1.66 for allele B2 at TCRG, and 1.35 for allele B at TCRB, showing no significant association [15].
  • METHODS: We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of junctional region of rearranged IgH, TCRD and TCRG genes in combination with heteroduplex analysis in polyacrylamide gel [16].
  • It had been assumed that this cDNA, termed TRG for tunicamycin resistance gene, encoded GPT enzyme [17].
  • Our studies provide an explanation for a previous observation that TCRG mRNA levels, but not mRNA levels for T cell receptor alpha and -beta, are increased by ionomycin treatment [18].
  • Monoclonal B cells were detected by studying rearrangement patterns of the hypervariable CDR III regions within the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus and the T-cell receptor gamma chain gene (TCRG) [19].

Regulatory relationships of TRG@

  • The simultaneous results on the TRG2@ locus molecular organization in sheep and on the phylogenetic analysis of cattle and sheep V expressed sequences indicate that at least six TRG clusters distributed in the two loci are present in these ruminant animals [9].

Other interactions of TRG@

  • In the human T cell receptor gamma (TRG) locus, fourteen variable (TRGV) genes belonging to four subgroups have been identified upstream of two constant region (TRGC) genes [20].
  • Rearrangements to the JP1, JP and JP2 segments in the human T-cell rearranging gamma gene (TRG gamma) locus [21].
  • Using Southern blotting and the polymerase chain reaction, two of 60 TCRG coding joints were abnormal [22].
  • Evolution of TRG clusters in cattle and sheep genomes as drawn from the structural analysis of the ovine TRG2@ locus [9].
  • Thirteen clones reactive with anti-TigammaA were tested; it was found that the second TRG allele (i.e., the one which does not involve V9-JP) of these cells was either in germ-line configuration or, more frequently, rearranged with a downstream V gamma gene joined to a J segment of the TRG1 region [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TRG@


  1. The absolute number of trans-rearrangements between the TCRG and TCRB loci is predictive of lymphoma risk: a severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) murine model. Lista, F., Bertness, V., Guidos, C.J., Danska, J.S., Kirsch, I.R. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. T cell receptor gamma (TCRG) gene rearrangements in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia refelct 'end-stage' recombinations: implications for minimal residual disease monitoring. Szczepański, T., Langerak, A.W., Willemse, M.J., Wolvers-Tettero, I.L., van Wering, E.R., van Dongen, J.J. Leukemia (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The human T-cell rearranging gamma (TRG) genes and the gamma T-cell receptor. Lefranc, M.P. Biochimie (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. The interleukin 7 receptor is required for T cell receptor gamma locus accessibility to the V(D)J recombinase. Schlissel, M.S., Durum, S.D., Muegge, K. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Human T cell gamma genes are frequently rearranged in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias but not in chronic B cell proliferations. Chen, Z., Le Paslier, D., Dausset, J., Degos, L., Flandrin, G., Cohen, D., Sigaux, F. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor beta and gamma genes are associated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase expression in acute myeloid leukemia. Foa, R., Casorati, G., Giubellino, M.C., Basso, G., Schirò, R., Pizzolo, G., Lauria, F., Lefranc, M.P., Rabbitts, T.H., Migone, N. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Human T-cell lines with well-defined T-cell receptor gene rearrangements as controls for the BIOMED-2 multiplex polymerase chain reaction tubes. Sandberg, Y., Verhaaf, B., van Gastel-Mol, E.J., Wolvers-Tettero, I.L., de Vos, J., Macleod, R.A., Noordzij, J.G., Dik, W.A., van Dongen, J.J., Langerak, A.W. Leukemia (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Exon duplication and triplication in the human T-cell receptor gamma constant region genes and RFLP in French, Lebanese, Tunisian, and black African populations. Buresi, C., Ghanem, N., Huck, S., Lefranc, G., Lefranc, M.P. Immunogenetics (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Evolution of TRG clusters in cattle and sheep genomes as drawn from the structural analysis of the ovine TRG2@ locus. Miccoli, M.C., Antonacci, R., Vaccarelli, G., Lanave, C., Massari, S., Cribiu, E.P., Ciccarese, S. J. Mol. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. gamma delta lineage-specific transcription of human T cell receptor gamma genes by a combination of a non-lineage-specific enhancer and silencers. Lefranc, M.P., Alexandre, D. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The human T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) genes. Lefranc, M.P., Rabbitts, T.H. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and expression in human lymphoid leukemia cells at different stages of maturation. Davey, M.P., Bongiovanni, K.F., Kaulfersch, W., Quertermous, T., Seidman, J.G., Hershfield, M.S., Kurtzberg, J., Haynes, B.F., Davis, M.M., Waldmann, T.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Chimeric gamma-delta signal joints. Implications for the mechanism and regulation of T cell receptor gene rearrangement. Tycko, B., Coyle, H., Sklar, J. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Primers and protocols for standardized detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia using immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangements and TAL1 deletions as PCR targets: report of the BIOMED-1 CONCERTED ACTION: investigation of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia. Pongers-Willemse, M.J., Seriu, T., Stolz, F., d'Aniello, E., Gameiro, P., Pisa, P., Gonzalez, M., Bartram, C.R., Panzer-Grümayer, E.R., Biondi, A., San Miguel, J.F., van Dongen, J.J. Leukemia (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. T-cell receptor variable genes and genetic susceptibility to celiac disease: an association and linkage study. Roschmann, E., Wienker, T.F., Gerok, W., Volk, B.A. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Rearrangements of IgH, TCRD and TCRG genes as clonality marker of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Meleshko, A.N., Lipay, N.V., Stasevich, I.V., Potapnev, M.P. Experimental oncology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence that the hamster tunicamycin resistance gene encodes UDP-GlcNAc:dolichol phosphate N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase. Zhu, X., Zeng, Y., Lehrman, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of an ionomycin/cyclosporin A-responsive element within the human T cell receptor gamma enhancer. Hettmann, T., Cohen, A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis for analysis of clonal evolution in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid. Tiemann, M., Menke, M.A., Asbeck, R., Wacker, H.H., Parwaresch, R. Electrophoresis (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular mapping of the human T cell receptor gamma (TRG) genes and linkage of the variable and constant regions. Lefranc, M.P., Chuchana, P., Dariavach, P., Nguyen, C., Huck, S., Brockly, F., Jordan, B., Lefranc, G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Rearrangements to the JP1, JP and JP2 segments in the human T-cell rearranging gamma gene (TRG gamma) locus. Huck, S., Lefranc, M.P. FEBS Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia: antigen receptor gene rearrangement and a novel mode of MTCP1 B1 activation. De Schouwer, P.J., Dyer, M.J., Brito-Babapulle, V.B., Matutes, E., Catovsky, D., Yuille, M.R. Br. J. Haematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Further evidence for a sequentially ordered activation of T cell rearranging gamma genes during T lymphocyte differentiation. Tribel, F., Lefranc, M.P., Hercend, T. Eur. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular and flow cytometric analysis of the Vbeta repertoire for clonality assessment in mature TCRalphabeta T-cell proliferations. Langerak, A.W., van Den Beemd, R., Wolvers-Tettero, I.L., Boor, P.P., van Lochem, E.G., Hooijkaas, H., van Dongen, J.J. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Heteroduplex PCR analysis of rearranged T cell receptor genes for clonality assessment in suspect T cell proliferations. Langerak, A.W., Szczepański, T., van der Burg, M., Wolvers-Tettero, I.L., van Dongen, J.J. Leukemia (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of the T-cell receptor gamma locus and analysis of the variable gene segment expression in rabbit. Cho, K.S., Zhai, S.K., Esteves, P.J., Knight, K.L. Immunogenetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Detection of antigen receptor gene rearrangements in lymphoproliferative malignancies by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction. Kerlan-Candon, S., Soua, Z., Lefranc, M.P., Clot, J., Eliaou, J.F. Tissue Antigens (1998) [Pubmed]
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