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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Recurrence

  • Measured in terms of both the immediate and long-term responses, chlorambucil appears to lower the frequency of relapses in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome [1].
  • We compared the effect of interferon alone with that of interferon plus oral ribavirin for relapses of chronic hepatitis C [2].
  • DC-induced myocarditis provides a unifying theory as to how tissue damage and activation of TLRs during infection can induce autoimmunity, relapses and cardiomyopathy [3].
  • In patients with recurrent or relapsing colitis, treatment with either metronidazole or vancomycin is effective for that episode, but novel approaches, such as the oral or rectal introduction of competing nonpathogenic organisms, may prove to be more successful in prevention of relapses [4].
  • The Ig VH gene expressed in this neoplasm was analyzed longitudinally using clinical specimens taken from the splenic lymphoma (S) at diagnosis and from lymph node relapses 3 and 4 yr later (N3 and N4) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Recurrence


High impact information on Recurrence


Chemical compound and disease context of Recurrence

  • Six of 47 patients (13 percent) assigned to receive lithium doses that would produce serum levels in the standard range had relapses while on protocol, as compared with 18 of 47 (38 percent) assigned to the low-dose range [15].
  • Among patients with standard risk, hematologic relapses occurred in 9 of 117 given methotrexate and 24 of 120 given irradiation (P less than 0.01) [16].
  • Of the remaining 189 patients, after a median follow-up of 286 days 14 of 78 receiving amphotericin B (18 percent) and 2 of 111 assigned to fluconazole (2 percent) had relapses of symptomatic cryptococcal disease (P less than 0.001 by Fisher's exact test) [17].
  • Symptomatic relapses without bleeding were treated with ranitidine; if the ulcer healed within eight weeks, the patient resumed taking the assigned study medication [18].
  • When treatment was started after disease onset, atorvastatin reduced the incidence of relapses and protected from the development of further disability [19].

Biological context of Recurrence

  • On the SJL background, disruption of the MCP-1 gene produced a milder EAE phenotype with diminished relapses that mimicked previous findings using anti-MCP-1 antibodies [20].
  • Our initial molecular genetic analyses in 2 off-treatment relapses suggested that the initial and relapse clones represent different subclones that evolved from a common TEL/AML1-positive, treatment-resistant precursor [21].
  • In order to further elaborate on this hypothesis, we studied 2 patients with late systemic relapses of their TEL/AML1-positive ALL (41 months and 49 months after initial diagnosis, respectively) who had distinct clonal antigen receptor gene rearrangements at diagnosis and relapse [21].
  • Patients may experience spontaneous remissions and relapses, but treatment with sulfasalazine or prednisone is usually effective for patients with distressing symptoms [22].
  • Phosphorylation of tau, activation of cdk5, and axonal pathology were significantly reduced when diseased rats were treated with prednisolone, a standard therapy of acute relapses in MS [23].

Anatomical context of Recurrence


Gene context of Recurrence

  • Blockade of CD28/B7-1 interaction prevents epitope spreading and clinical relapses of murine EAE [29].
  • Anti B7-1 F(ab) fragment therapy, but not anti B7-2 MAb therapy, blocked clinical relapses, ameliorated CNS pathology, and blocked epitope spreading [29].
  • We asked whether blockade of the CD40-CD154 (CD40L) costimulatory pathway could suppress relapses in mice with established R-EAE [30].
  • This study was conducted in a patient with recurrent TTP due to high titers of ADAMTS13 inhibitors, who used to have 2 relapses of TTP a year [31].
  • TIMP-1 levels were not different during relapse and between relapses [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Recurrence


  1. Long-term evaluation of chlorambucil plus prednisone in the idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood. Williams, S.A., Makker, S.P., Ingelfinger, J.R., Grupe, W.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of relapse of chronic hepatitis C. International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. Davis, G.L., Esteban-Mur, R., Rustgi, V., Hoefs, J., Gordon, S.C., Trepo, C., Shiffman, M.L., Zeuzem, S., Craxi, A., Ling, M.H., Albrecht, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Dendritic cell-induced autoimmune heart failure requires cooperation between adaptive and innate immunity. Eriksson, U., Ricci, R., Hunziker, L., Kurrer, M.O., Oudit, G.Y., Watts, T.H., Sonderegger, I., Bachmaier, K., Kopf, M., Penninger, J.M. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis. Fekety, R., Shah, A.B. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The role of clonal selection in the pathogenesis of an autoreactive human B cell lymphoma. Friedman, D.F., Cho, E.A., Goldman, J., Carmack, C.E., Besa, E.C., Hardy, R.R., Silberstein, L.E. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion on sleep electroencephalogram and mood in subjects with partially remitted depression on bupropion. Evans, L., Golshan, S., Kelsoe, J., Rapaport, M., Resovsky, K., Sutton, L., Gillin, J.C. Neuropsychopharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication is more effective than long-term maintenance antisecretory treatment in the prevention of recurrence of duodenal ulcer: a prospective long-term follow-up study. Wong, B.C., Lam, S.K., Lai, K.C., Hu, W.H., Ching, C.K., Ho, J., Yuen, S.T., Chan, C.K., Lau, G.K., Lai, C.L. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Daily single-dose and daily reduced-dose prednisone therapy for children with the nephrotic syndrome. Warshaw, B.L., Hymes, L.C. Pediatrics (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. A study of relapses in subjects with mood disorder on lithium treatment. Gasperini, M., Scherillo, P., Manfredonia, M.G., Franchini, L., Smeraldi, E. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. The risk and dynamics of onchocerciasis recrudescence after cessation of vector control. Plaisier, A.P., van Oortmarssen, G.J., Remme, J., Alley, E.S., Habbema, J.D. Bull. World Health Organ. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Feldmann, M., Brennan, F.M., Maini, R.N. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with clopidogrel. Bennett, C.L., Connors, J.M., Carwile, J.M., Moake, J.L., Bell, W.R., Tarantolo, S.R., McCarthy, L.J., Sarode, R., Hatfield, A.J., Feldman, M.D., Davidson, C.J., Tsai, H.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. A controlled trial of itraconazole to prevent relapse of Penicillium marneffei infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Supparatpinyo, K., Perriens, J., Nelson, K.E., Sirisanthana, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) for the prevention of relapses of Wegener's granulomatosis. Dutch Co-Trimoxazole Wegener Study Group. Stegeman, C.A., Tervaert, J.W., de Jong, P.E., Kallenberg, C.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of standard and low serum levels of lithium for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Gelenberg, A.J., Kane, J.M., Keller, M.B., Lavori, P., Rosenbaum, J.F., Cole, K., Lavelle, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of intermediate-dose methotrexate with cranial irradiation for the post-induction treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children. Freeman, A.I., Weinberg, V., Brecher, M.L., Jones, B., Glicksman, A.S., Sinks, L.F., Weil, M., Pleuss, H., Hananian, J., Burgert, E.O., Gilchrist, G.S., Necheles, T., Harris, M., Kung, F., Patterson, R.B., Maurer, H., Leventhal, B., Chevalier, L., Forman, E., Holland, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. A controlled trial of fluconazole or amphotericin B to prevent relapse of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group and Mycoses Study Group. Powderly, W.G., Saag, M.S., Cloud, G.A., Robinson, P., Meyer, R.D., Jacobson, J.M., Graybill, J.R., Sugar, A.M., McAuliffe, V.J., Follansbee, S.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. A controlled study of ranitidine for the prevention of recurrent hemorrhage from duodenal ulcer. Jensen, D.M., Cheng, S., Kovacs, T.O., Randall, G., Jensen, M.E., Reedy, T., Frankl, H., Machicado, G., Smith, J., Silpa, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Treatment of relapsing paralysis in experimental encephalomyelitis by targeting Th1 cells through atorvastatin. Aktas, O., Waiczies, S., Smorodchenko, A., Dorr, J., Seeger, B., Prozorovski, T., Sallach, S., Endres, M., Brocke, S., Nitsch, R., Zipp, F. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Absence of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in mice leads to decreased local macrophage recruitment and antigen-specific T helper cell type 1 immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Huang, D.R., Wang, J., Kivisakk, P., Rollins, B.J., Ransohoff, R.M. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Late relapses evolve from slow-responding subclones in t(12;21)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: evidence for the persistence of a preleukemic clone. Konrad, M., Metzler, M., Panzer, S., Ostreicher, I., Peham, M., Repp, R., Haas, O.A., Gadner, H., Panzer-Grumayer, E.R. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Zeroogian, J.M., Chopra, S. Annu. Rev. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Schneider, A., Araújo, G.W., Trajkovic, K., Herrmann, M.M., Merkler, D., Mandelkow, E.M., Weissert, R., Simons, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Depletion of myelin-basic-protein autoreactive T cells by T-cell vaccination: pilot trial in multiple sclerosis. Medaer, R., Stinissen, P., Truyen, L., Raus, J., Zhang, J. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Predictive value of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for relapse rate and changes in disability or impairment in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Gadolinium MRI Meta-analysis Group. Kappos, L., Moeri, D., Radue, E.W., Schoetzau, A., Schweikert, K., Barkhof, F., Miller, D., Guttmann, C.R., Weiner, H.L., Gasperini, C., Filippi, M. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Beta 2-adrenoceptor involvement in inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis. De Keyser, J., Zeinstra, E., Mostert, J., Wilczak, N. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Cross-reactions and specificities of monoclonal antibodies against myelin basic protein and against the synthetic copolymer 1. Teitelbaum, D., Aharoni, R., Sela, M., Arnon, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Clinical utility of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and adenosine deaminase determinations in adult leukemia with a lymphoid phenotype. Brusamolino, E., Isernia, P., Lazzarino, M., Scovassi, I., Bertazzoni, U., Bernasconi, C. J. Clin. Oncol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Blockade of CD28/B7-1 interaction prevents epitope spreading and clinical relapses of murine EAE. Miller, S.D., Vanderlugt, C.L., Lenschow, D.J., Pope, J.G., Karandikar, N.J., Dal Canto, M.C., Bluestone, J.A. Immunity (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Mechanisms of immunotherapeutic intervention by anti-CD40L (CD154) antibody in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Howard, L.M., Miga, A.J., Vanderlugt, C.L., Dal Canto, M.C., Laman, J.D., Noelle, R.J., Miller, S.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Rituximab prevents recurrence of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a case report. Galbusera, M., Bresin, E., Noris, M., Gastoldi, S., Belotti, D., Capoferri, C., Daina, E., Perseghin, P., Scheiflinger, F., Fakhouri, F., Grünfeld, J.P., Pogliani, E., Remuzzi, G. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Serum gelatinase B, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal clinical and MRI study. Lee, M.A., Palace, J., Stabler, G., Ford, J., Gearing, A., Miller, K. Brain (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Controlled trial prednisolone in acute polyneuropathy. Hughes, R.A., Newsom-Davis, J.M., Perkin, G.D., Pierce, J.M. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  34. Occult microlithiasis in 'idiopathic' acute pancreatitis: prevention of relapses by cholecystectomy or ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. Ros, E., Navarro, S., Bru, C., Garcia-Pugés, A., Valderrama, R. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Unrelated donor stem cell transplantation compared with chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a second remission: a matched-pair analysis. Borgmann, A., von Stackelberg, A., Hartmann, R., Ebell, W., Klingebiel, T., Peters, C., Henze, G. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. AIDS-related lymphoproliferative disease. Navarro, W.H., Kaplan, L.D. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Importance of effective central nervous system therapy in isolated bone marrow relapse of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) Relapse Study Group. Bührer, C., Hartmann, R., Fengler, R., Schober, S., Arlt, I., Loewke, M., Henze, G. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
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