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Gene Review


Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: WIP domain protein 1, WIP1, transparent testa 1
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Disease relevance of TT1

  • TTL1 regulates the transcript levels of several dehydration-responsive genes, such as the transcription factor DREB2A, and genes encoding dehydration response proteins, such as ERD1 (early response to dehydration 1), ERD3, and COR15a [1].

High impact information on TT1

  • The TT1 gene was isolated by reverse genetics using an En-1 transposon mutagenized A. thaliana population [2].
  • Mutant seeds displayed altered morphology of the seed endothelium in which brown tannin pigments accumulate in wild-type plants, indicating that TT1 is involved in the differentiation of this cell layer [2].
  • TT1 gene expression was detected in developing ovules and young seeds only, and the gene was shown to encode a nuclear protein [2].
  • Seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana transparent testa 1 mutant (tt1) appear yellow, due to the lack of condensed tannin pigments in the seed coat [2].
  • A. thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 1 is involved in seed coat development and defines the WIP subfamily of plant zinc finger proteins [2].

Biological context of TT1


Associations of TT1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of TT1


  1. The Arabidopsis Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing Protein TTL1 Is Required for Osmotic Stress Responses and Abscisic Acid Sensitivity. Rosado, A., Schapire, A.L., Bressan, R.A., Harfouche, A.L., Hasegawa, P.M., Valpuesta, V., Botella, M.A. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A. thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 1 is involved in seed coat development and defines the WIP subfamily of plant zinc finger proteins. Sagasser, M., Lu, G.H., Hahlbrock, K., Weisshaar, B. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutations in the pale aleurone color1 regulatory gene of the Zea mays anthocyanin pathway have distinct phenotypes relative to the functionally similar TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Carey, C.C., Strahle, J.T., Selinger, D.A., Chandler, V.L. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on a plant genome: analysis of two Arabidopsis transparent testa mutations. Shirley, B.W., Hanley, S., Goodman, H.M. Plant Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of flavanone 3-hydroxylase in Arabidopsis seedlings. Coordinate regulation with chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase. Pelletier, M.K., Shirley, B.W. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. The FUS3 transcription factor functions through the epidermal regulator TTG1 during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Tsuchiya, Y., Nambara, E., Naito, S., McCourt, P. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Rao, M.V., Paliyath, G., Ormrod, D.P. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis. Peer, W.A., Brown, D.E., Tague, B.W., Muday, G.K., Taiz, L., Murphy, A.S. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Involvement of AtLAC15 in lignin synthesis in seeds and in root elongation of Arabidopsis. Liang, M., Davis, E., Gardner, D., Cai, X., Wu, Y. Planta (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. GL3 encodes a bHLH protein that regulates trichome development in arabidopsis through interaction with GL1 and TTG1. Payne, C.T., Zhang, F., Lloyd, A.M. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2, a trichome and seed coat development gene of Arabidopsis, encodes a WRKY transcription factor. Johnson, C.S., Kolevski, B., Smyth, D.R. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. A plasma membrane H+-ATPase is required for the formation of proanthocyanidins in the seed coat endothelium of Arabidopsis thaliana. Baxter, I.R., Young, J.C., Armstrong, G., Foster, N., Bogenschutz, N., Cordova, T., Peer, W.A., Hazen, S.P., Murphy, A.S., Harper, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation and characterization of mutants defective in seed coat mucilage secretory cell development in Arabidopsis. Western, T.L., Burn, J., Tan, W.L., Skinner, D.J., Martin-McCaffrey, L., Moffatt, B.A., Haughn, G.W. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis. Brown, D.E., Rashotte, A.M., Murphy, A.S., Normanly, J., Tague, B.W., Peer, W.A., Taiz, L., Muday, G.K. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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