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Gene Review

CAK1  -  Cak1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: CDK-activating kinase, CIV1, Serine/threonine-protein kinase CAK1, YFL029C
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High impact information on CAK1


Biological context of CAK1


Anatomical context of CAK1

  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) coordinate progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle and require phosphorylation by a cdk-activating kinase (CAK) for full activity [8].

Associations of CAK1 with chemical compounds

  • Our data show that Cak1p is required to activate Ime2p through a mechanism that requires threonine 242 and tyrosine 244 in Ime2p's activation loop [5].
  • Two steps are essential for Cdk activation: binding of a cyclin and phosphorylation on a conserved threonine residue by the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) [9].
  • Cak1p lacks the highly conserved glycine loop motif (GXGXXG) that is found in the nucleotide binding fold of virtually all protein kinases and also lacks a number of conserved amino acids found at sites throughout the protein kinase core sequence [10].
  • Similarly, Cak1p is insensitive to the ATP analog 5'-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine, which inhibits most protein kinases through covalent modification of the invariant lysine [10].

Physical interactions of CAK1

  • Activation of the Bur1-Bur2 cyclin-dependent kinase complex by Cak1 [11].
  • Suppression is independent of the kinase activity of Cak1, suggesting that Cak1 may bind to the carboxyl terminus to serve a non-catalytic role in assembly and/or stabilization of active Cdc28 complexes [12].

Enzymatic interactions of CAK1


Regulatory relationships of CAK1


Other interactions of CAK1

  • CAK1 was previously identified as a multicopy suppressor of a weakened smk1 mutant and shown to be required for spore wall assembly [4].
  • Cak1 is required for Kin28 phosphorylation and activation in vivo [6].
  • Consistent with Cak1p's role in activating Ime2p, cells lacking Cak1p are deficient in degrading Sic1p [5].
  • We also found that mutants lacking CAK1 are blocked early in meiotic development, as they show substantial delays in premeiotic DNA synthesis and defects in the expression of sporulation-specific genes, including IME1 [4].
  • Three high-copy suppressors of pbs2-3 osmosensitivity were identified: MSG5, CAK1, and TRX1 [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CAK1


  1. Civ1 (CAK in vivo), a novel Cdk-activating kinase. Thuret, J.Y., Valay, J.G., Faye, G., Mann, C. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. A cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) in budding yeast unrelated to vertebrate CAK. Espinoza, F.H., Farrell, A., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Morgan, D.O. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Cdk7 is essential for mitosis and for in vivo Cdk-activating kinase activity. Larochelle, S., Pandur, J., Fisher, R.P., Salz, H.K., Suter, B. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. CAK1 promotes meiosis and spore formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a CDC28-independent fashion. Schaber, M., Lindgren, A., Schindler, K., Bungard, D., Kaldis, P., Winter, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The Cdk-activating kinase Cak1p promotes meiotic S phase through Ime2p. Schindler, K., Benjamin, K.R., Martin, A., Boglioli, A., Herskowitz, I., Winter, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Cak1 is required for Kin28 phosphorylation and activation in vivo. Espinoza, F.H., Farrell, A., Nourse, J.L., Chamberlin, H.M., Gileadi, O., Morgan, D.O. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The CDK-activating kinase CAK1 can dosage suppress sporulation defects of smk1 MAP kinase mutants and is required for spore wall morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wagner, M., Pierce, M., Winter, E. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparison of Cak1p-like cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinases. Tsakraklides, V., Solomon, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Activating phosphorylation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclin-dependent kinase, cdc28p, precedes cyclin binding. Ross, K.E., Kaldis, P., Solomon, M.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The CDK-activating kinase (Cak1p) from budding yeast has an unusual ATP-binding pocket. Enke, D.A., Kaldis, P., Holmes, J.K., Solomon, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Activation of the Bur1-Bur2 cyclin-dependent kinase complex by Cak1. Yao, S., Prelich, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. An essential function of yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 maintains chromosome stability. Kitazono, A.A., Kron, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Phosphorylation by Cak1 regulates the C-terminal domain kinase Ctk1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ostapenko, D., Solomon, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae filamentation/invasion pathway by osmotic stress in high-osmolarity glycogen pathway mutants. Davenport, K.D., Williams, K.E., Ullmann, B.D., Gustin, M.C. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of phosphorylation of threonine 160 on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 structure and activity. Brown, N.R., Noble, M.E., Lawrie, A.M., Morris, M.C., Tunnah, P., Divita, G., Johnson, L.N., Endicott, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Localization and regulation of the cdk-activating kinase (Cak1p) from budding yeast. Kaldis, P., Pitluk, Z.W., Bany, I.A., Enke, D.A., Wagner, M., Winter, E., Solomon, M.J. J. Cell. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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