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Gene Review

SMC1  -  cohesin subunit SMC1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: CHL10, DA-box protein SMC1, Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1, YFL008W
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High impact information on SMC1

  • Cohesin's Smc1 and Smc3 "heads" are connected by an alpha kleisin subunit called Scc1, forming a tripartite ring with a diameter around 40 nm [1].
  • Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by evolutionary conserved chromosomal proteins, termed "cohesins." Using an extension of chromatin immunoprecipitation, we have analyzed the distribution of cohesins Mcd1/ Sccl and Smc1 along yeast chromosome III [2].
  • The physical association between Mcd1p and Smc1p, one of the SMC family of chromosomal proteins, further suggests that Mcd1p functions directly on chromosomes [3].
  • Yeast containing hypomorphic mutations in SMC1 and human cells overexpressing Smc1 mutated at both of these phosphorylation sites exhibit decreased survival following ionizing irradiation [4].
  • Here, we show that the protein kinase, Atm, which belongs to a family of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases that regulate cell cycle checkpoints and DNA recombination and repair, phosphorylates Smc1 protein after ionizing irradiation [4].

Biological context of SMC1

  • This family of evolutionary conserved proteins was introduced with identification of SMC1, a gene essential for chromosome segregation in budding yeast [5].
  • SMC1: an essential yeast gene encoding a putative head-rod-tail protein is required for nuclear division and defines a new ubiquitous protein family [6].
  • Haploid, but not diploid smc1-2 mutants were severely affected in repairing multiple genomic DNA breaks, suggesting a selective role of SMC1 in sister chromatid recombination. smc1-2 mutants were also 15-fold less efficient and highly error-prone in plasmid end-joining through the NHEJ pathway [7].
  • Overexpression of either hsHEC1 or scHEC1 suppressed the lethal phenotype of smc1-2 and smc2-6 at nonpermissive temperatures, suggesting that the interactions between Hec1p and Smc1p and -2p are biologically significant [8].
  • We report here evidence for an involvement of mammalian SMC1 and SMC3 proteins in meiosis [9].

Anatomical context of SMC1

  • In spermatocyte nuclei spreads, the SMC1 and SMC3 proteins localize in a beaded structure along the axial elements of synaptonemal complexes of pachytene and diplotene chromosomes [9].
  • The phenotype upon overproduction and the similarity of Hp71 to the SMC superfamily of P-loop head-rod-tail proteins (named after SMC1, which is involved in the "stability of minichromosomes" in yeast) indicate that Hp71 might be involved in cytoskeleton formation and/or chromosome partitioning in H. salinarium [10].
  • Based upon the facts that Smc1p is a member of a ubiquitous family, and it is essential for yeast nuclear division, we propose that Smc1p and Smc1p-like proteins function in a fundamental aspect of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division [6].
  • We find that cohesin binds between a remote wing margin enhancer and the promoter at the cut locus in cultured cells, and that reducing the dosage of the Smc1 cohesin subunit increases cut expression in the developing wing margin [11].

Associations of SMC1 with chemical compounds

  • These same sites in Smc1 are phosphorylated after treatment with UV irradiation or hydroxyurea in an Atm-independent manner, thus demonstrating that another kinase must be involved in responses to these cellular stresses [4].

Physical interactions of SMC1

  • The Smc2p molecules are able to form complexes in vivo both with Smc1p and with themselves, suggesting that they can assemble into a multimeric structure [5].

Other interactions of SMC1


  1. A topological interaction between cohesin rings and a circular minichromosome. Ivanov, D., Nasmyth, K. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Cohesins bind to preferential sites along yeast chromosome III, with differential regulation along arms versus the centric region. Blat, Y., Kleckner, N. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A direct link between sister chromatid cohesion and chromosome condensation revealed through the analysis of MCD1 in S. cerevisiae. Guacci, V., Koshland, D., Strunnikov, A. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Involvement of the cohesin protein, Smc1, in Atm-dependent and independent responses to DNA damage. Kim, S.T., Xu, B., Kastan, M.B. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. SMC2, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene essential for chromosome segregation and condensation, defines a subgroup within the SMC family. Strunnikov, A.V., Hogan, E., Koshland, D. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. SMC1: an essential yeast gene encoding a putative head-rod-tail protein is required for nuclear division and defines a new ubiquitous protein family. Strunnikov, A.V., Larionov, V.L., Koshland, D. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. SMC1 coordinates DNA double-strand break repair pathways. Schär, P., Fäsi, M., Jessberger, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Hec1p, an evolutionarily conserved coiled-coil protein, modulates chromosome segregation through interaction with SMC proteins. Zheng, L., Chen, Y., Lee, W.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Association of mammalian SMC1 and SMC3 proteins with meiotic chromosomes and synaptonemal complexes. Eijpe, M., Heyting, C., Gross, B., Jessberger, R. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. A 71-kDa protein from Halobacterium salinarium belongs to a ubiquitous P-loop ATPase superfamily with head-rod-tail structure. Ruepp, A., Wanner, G., Soppa, J. Arch. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of sister chromatid cohesion proteins on cut gene expression during wing development in Drosophila. Dorsett, D., Eissenberg, J.C., Misulovin, Z., Martens, A., Redding, B., McKim, K. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Eco1 is a novel acetyltransferase that can acetylate proteins involved in cohesion. Ivanov, D., Schleiffer, A., Eisenhaber, F., Mechtler, K., Haering, C.H., Nasmyth, K. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Retinoblastoma protein enhances the fidelity of chromosome segregation mediated by hsHec1p. Zheng, L., Chen, Y., Riley, D.J., Chen, P.L., Lee, W.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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