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Gene Review

SGA1  -  glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase, Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, Glucoamylase, intracellular sporulation-specific, SGA, YIL099W
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High impact information on SGA1

  • Gph1p and Sga1p may therefore degrade physically distinct pools of glycogen [1].
  • STA1 mRNA was induced in diploids during sporulation along with SGA, a closely linked gene that encodes an intracellular sporulation-specific glucoamylase of S. cerevisiae [2].
  • Leaky expression was eliminated using 3-aminotriazole and gene conversion was eliminated by using the Schizosaccharomyces pombe his5+ gene, resulting in a 5- to 10-fold improvement in the efficiency of SGA [3].
  • Using a genetic array of nonessential null mutations (SGA) we identified mutations that are sick/lethal in combination with the rsc7delta mutation, which revealed connections to a surprisingly large number of chromatin remodeling complexes and cellular processes [4].
  • These genes are absent in S. cerevisiae, but a related gene, SGA1, encoding an intracellular, sporulation-specific glucoamylase (SGA), is present [5].

Biological context of SGA1

  • The S1, S2 and SGA1 ancestral genes for the STA glucoamylase genes all map to chromosome IX in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [6].
  • To study the role of sequences upstream of the SGA1 gene in its expression and regulation, we generated internal deletions in the 5' non-coding region of the gene and chimeric genes with portions of the upstream sequence inserted into a reporter gene [7].
  • A sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene called SGA1 exists in every Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, this also having a partly homologous DNA sequence with the STA genes [8].
  • These data and RNA blot analysis revealed that the following regions of STA1 were highly conserved in S2, S1, and SGA: upstream regulatory sequences responsible for transcription, a signal sequence for protein secretion, a threonine- and serine-rich domain, and a catalytic domain for glucoamylase activity [9].
  • This finding was re-examined by determining the effects of STA10 on the expression of gene constructs containing different fragments from the SGA and STA2 promoter regions fused to the lacZ gene [10].

Regulatory relationships of SGA1

  • SGA was expressed in vegetatively growing cells under the control of the GAL1 promoter, and the cellular location of the enzymatic activity determined by fractionation techniques [11].

Other interactions of SGA1

  • The SGA1 sporulation-specific, intracellular glucoamylase-encoding gene is located on the left arm of chromosome IX, 32 kb proximal of HIS5 [6].
  • STA1 induction may be a response to the starvation conditions necessary for sporulation, while SGA induction is governed by the pathway by which MAT regulates sporulation [2].
  • SGA was preferentially recovered in fractions which were enriched for the vacuolar hydrolases, carboxypeptidase Y and alpha-mannosidase [11].


  1. Antagonistic controls of autophagy and glycogen accumulation by Snf1p, the yeast homolog of AMP-activated protein kinase, and the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p. Wang, Z., Wilson, W.A., Fujino, M.A., Roach, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of STA1 gene expression by MAT during the life cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dranginis, A.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Eliminating gene conversion improves high-throughput genetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Daniel, J.A., Yoo, J., Bettinger, B.T., Amberg, D.C., Burke, D.J. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The RSC chromatin remodeling complex bears an essential fungal-specific protein module with broad functional roles. Wilson, B., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Cairns, B.R. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The glucoamylase multigene family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus: an overview. Pretorius, I.S., Lambrechts, M.G., Marmur, J. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. The S1, S2 and SGA1 ancestral genes for the STA glucoamylase genes all map to chromosome IX in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lambrechts, M.G., Pretorius, I.S., Marmur, J., Sollitti, P. Yeast (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Positive and negative elements upstream of the meiosis-specific glucoamylase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kihara, K., Nakamura, M., Akada, R., Yamashita, I. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Presence of STA gene sequences in brewer's yeast genome. Balogh, I., Maráz, A. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Gene fusion is a possible mechanism underlying the evolution of STA1. Yamashita, I., Nakamura, M., Fukui, S. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. The promoter element GTACAAG of the SGA and STA2 genes is a possible target site for repression by the STA10 gene product from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Claros, M.G., del Pozo, L., Abarca, D., Jiménez, A. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization and localization of the sporulation glucoamylase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pugh, T.A., Shah, J.C., Magee, P.T., Clancy, M.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
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