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Gene Review

EIF4G3  -  eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 3, eIF-4-gamma 3, eIF-4-gamma II, eIF-4G 3, eIF4G 3, ...
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Disease relevance of EIF4G3

  • Knowledge of the cleavage sites and the three-dimensional structures of the FMDV L(pro) and rhinovirus 2A(pro) enabled mutant forms of the eIF4GII sequence to be generated that are differentially resistant to either one of these proteases [1].
  • Several picornaviruses shut down host cellular protein synthesis by proteolytic cleavage of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4GI and eIF4GII isoforms [2].
  • Cleavage of eIF4GII is induced in cells and in cell extracts by the FMDV leader protease (L(pro)) alone, generating cleavage products similar to those induced by enterovirus and rhinovirus 2A protease (2A(pro)) [1].
  • We have developed an efficient and reliable method of expressing poliovirus 2Apro, which differentially proteolyzes eIF4GI and eIF4GII in a time- and dose-dependent manner [3].
  • However, in contrast to picornaviral proteases, the cleavage of eIF4GI by HIV-1 protease occurs at multiple sites and impairs translation of both cap-dependent and IRES-containing RNAs, except for the HCV IRES, which does not require eIF4GI or eIF4GII for activity [4].

High impact information on EIF4G3

  • Furthermore, eIF4E interaction with eIF4GII is strongly decreased coincident with hyperphosphorylation of eIF4GII [5].
  • The 29 amino acid stretch is almost identical in eIF4GI and eIF4GII, and the full-length eIF4GII also binds PABP [6].
  • Moreover, infection with poliovirus in the presence of inhibitors of virus replication resulted in efficient cleavage of eIF4GI, but only partial proteolysis of eIF4GII [7].
  • Although eIF4GI plays a critical role in mRNA recruitment to the ribosomes, little is known about the functions of the different isoforms, their partner binding capacities, or the role of the homolog, eIF4GII, in translation initiation [8].
  • There are two functional homologs of eIF4G in mammals, the original eIF4G, renamed eIF4GI, and eIF4GII that functionally complements eIF4GI [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of EIF4G3

  • Our results show that eIF4GI, but not eIF4GII, is substrate for HIV-1 protease and this effect can be prevented by a HIV-1 protease inhibitor, palinavir [4].

Biological context of EIF4G3


Anatomical context of EIF4G3

  • In HeLa cell translation extracts that exhibit cap-poly(A) synergy, partial cleavage of PABP by 3Cpro inhibited translation of endogenous mRNAs and reporter RNA as effectively as complete cleavage of eIF4GI and eIF4GII by 2Apro [12].
  • Moreover, reinitiation of a preexisting mRNA translation after polysome run-off is dependent on the integrity of eIF4GII [3].
  • Two isoforms of the translation initiation factor eIF4G, eIF4GI and eIF4GII, have been described in eukaryotic cells [3].
  • Thus, by analogy with members of the picornavirus family, we have investigated the action of the HIV-1 protease on initiation factors eIF4GI and eIF4GII using cell extracts and the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system [4].
  • Proteasome inhibitors and immunosuppressive drugs promote the cleavage of eIF4GI and eIF4GII by caspase-8-independent mechanisms in Jurkat T cell lines [13].

Associations of EIF4G3 with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of EIF4G3

  • Endogenous eIF4GII immunoprecipitated from HEK293T cells was phosphorylated by CaMKI, in vitro as was a recombinant fragment of eIF4GII encompassing the central and C-terminal regions [10].

Other interactions of EIF4G3

  • Human rhinovirus 2A proteinase cleavage sites in eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4GI and eIF4GII are different [2].
  • In contrast, the second form of eIF4G described recently, eIF4GII, is cleaved as rapidly as eIF4GI under the same conditions [15].
  • Upon induction, cleavage of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI) and eIF4GII is observed, with the latter being cleaved in a somewhat slower kinetics. eIF4G cleavage was accompanied by a severe inhibition of protein synthesis activity [16].
  • IRES interaction with translation initiation factors: functional characterization of novel RNA contacts with eIF3, eIF4B, and eIF4GII [17].


  1. Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GII within foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells: identification of the L-protease cleavage site in vitro. Gradi, A., Foeger, N., Strong, R., Svitkin, Y.V., Sonenberg, N., Skern, T., Belsham, G.J. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Human rhinovirus 2A proteinase cleavage sites in eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4GI and eIF4GII are different. Gradi, A., Svitkin, Y.V., Sommergruber, W., Imataka, H., Morino, S., Skern, T., Sonenberg, N. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential Cleavage of eIF4GI and eIF4GII in Mammalian Cells: EFFECTS ON TRANSLATION. Castell??, A., Alvarez, E., Carrasco, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. In vitro cleavage of eIF4GI but not eIF4GII by HIV-1 protease and its effects on translation in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Ohlmann, T., Prévôt, D., Décimo, D., Roux, F., Garin, J., Morley, S.J., Darlix, J.L. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Suppression of cap-dependent translation in mitosis. Pyronnet, S., Dostie, J., Sonenberg, N. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. A newly identified N-terminal amino acid sequence of human eIF4G binds poly(A)-binding protein and functions in poly(A)-dependent translation. Imataka, H., Gradi, A., Sonenberg, N. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Proteolysis of human eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4GII, but not eIF4GI, coincides with the shutoff of host protein synthesis after poliovirus infection. Gradi, A., Svitkin, Y.V., Imataka, H., Sonenberg, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Specific Isoforms of Translation Initiation Factor 4GI Show Differences in Translational Activity. Coldwell, M.J., Morley, S.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Selective modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) at the onset of cell differentiation: recruitment of eIF4GII and long-lasting phosphorylation of eIF4E. Caron, S., Charon, M., Cramer, E., Sonenberg, N., Dusanter-Fourt, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Phosphorylation screening identifies translational initiation factor 4GII as an intracellular target of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. Qin, H., Raught, B., Sonenberg, N., Goldstein, E.G., Edelman, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GII correlates with translation inhibition during apoptosis. Marissen, W.E., Gradi, A., Sonenberg, N., Lloyd, R.E. Cell Death Differ. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein by poliovirus 3C protease inhibits host cell translation: a novel mechanism for host translation shutoff. Kuyumcu-Martinez, N.M., Van Eden, M.E., Younan, P., Lloyd, R.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Proteasome inhibitors and immunosuppressive drugs promote the cleavage of eIF4GI and eIF4GII by caspase-8-independent mechanisms in Jurkat T cell lines. Morley, S.J., Pain, V.M. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Backbone resonance assignment of human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in complex with 7-methylguanosine diphosphate (m7GDP) and a 17-amino acid peptide derived from human eIF4GII. Miura, T., Shiratori, Y., Shimma, N. J. Biomol. NMR (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in integrity and association of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factors during apoptosis. Bushell, M., Wood, W., Clemens, M.J., Morley, S.J. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Poliovirus 2A protease induces apoptotic cell death. Goldstaub, D., Gradi, A., Bercovitch, Z., Grosmann, Z., Nophar, Y., Luria, S., Sonenberg, N., Kahana, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. IRES interaction with translation initiation factors: functional characterization of novel RNA contacts with eIF3, eIF4B, and eIF4GII. López de Quinto, S., Lafuente, E., Martínez-Salas, E. RNA (2001) [Pubmed]
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