The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Enterovirus


High impact information on Enterovirus

  • The isolate was identified with use of Lim-Benyesh--Meinick enterovirus typing serum pools as coxsackievirus Type A-9 [6].
  • We observed more severe cardiomyopathy, worsening over time, and greater viral replication in dystrophin-deficient mice infected with enterovirus than in infected wild-type mice [7].
  • Enterovirus infection and cardiomyopathy in Cameroon [8].
  • However, there was significantly decreased CD2, CD3, and CD45RO T lymphocyte counts in the adenovirus-positive group compared with the adenovirus-negative group (P<0.05), whereas no differences were associated with enterovirus infection [9].
  • In addition, 152 randomly selected case-control pairs and all IgM-positive mothers' sera were tested for enterovirus RNA (series 2) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Enterovirus


Biological context of Enterovirus


Anatomical context of Enterovirus

  • These data demonstrate that enterovirus RNA persists in myocardium of a significant proportion of patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in the absence of a continuing cell-mediated or humoral immune response [21].
  • Lymphocyte proliferation responses to enterovirus antigens were analyzed in 41 children with new-onset type 1 diabetes, 23 children with type 1 diabetes for 4-72 months, and healthy control children in subgroups matched for HLA-DQB1 risk alleles, sex, and age [22].
  • A receptor on YAC-1 cells, a mouse T-lymphoma cell line, bound all six serotypes of the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) [23].
  • The SVDV 2A protease cleaves the 1D-2A junction in the viral polyprotein, induces cleavage of translation initiation factor eIF4GI, and stimulates the activity of enterovirus internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) [24].
  • CONCLUSION: The 88.3% rate of detection of enterovirus (EV) nucleic acids in the neuronal cell bodies within the gray matter of the spinal cord of patients with ALS strongly suggests association between persistent EV RNA and ALS [25].

Gene context of Enterovirus

  • Enterovirus 70 (EV70), like several other human enteroviruses, can utilize decay-accelerating factor (DAF [CD55]) as an attachment protein [26].
  • The expression of the inducible form of the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is regulated by cytokines, involved in the complex myocardial immune response to enterovirus infections [27].
  • For example, IFN-beta and antibody was 10 to 200 times more effective than IFN-gamma and antibody against coxsackievirus A24, enterovirus 70, and adenovirus [28].
  • Enterovirus 71 contains a type I IRES element that functions when eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4G is cleaved [29].
  • Enterovirus infections with beta-cell tropic strains are frequent in siblings of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes children and in association with elevated levels of GAD65 antibodies [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Enterovirus

  • Muscle from juvenile DM patients and control children, CD-1 Swiss mice with and without CVB1 infection, and viral stock positive for CVB1-6 were tested using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with 5 primer sets, 4 probes (1 Coxsackievirus, 3 Enterovirus), and universal primers for DNA [31].
  • Recent in situ hybridization studies on endomyocardial biopsies and autopsy hearts indicate that enterovirus RNA can be detected (pattern of persistent infection) not only in acute myocarditis (pattern of acute infection), but also in chronic dilated cardiomyopathy [32].
  • The activity of pleconaril in cell culture against prototypic enterovirus strains and 215 clinical isolates of the most commonly isolated enterovirus serotypes was examined [33].
  • Endomyocardial biopsy specimens from 9 of 21 (42.9%) patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy were positive for enterovirus by PCR, compared with only 1 of 14 (7.1%) patients with other myocardial pathological conditions (Fisher's exact probability=0.0275: odds ratio=9.75; 95% confidence interval=1.31-72.78) [34].
  • One hundred and thirty-nine bovine sera collected in Senegal in 1968 and 1969, before the human pandemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), and 145 sera collected in 1977, seven years after the introduction of AHC, were tested for virus neutralizing (VN) titers against enterovirus 70 (EV70) in neutralization tests [35].


  1. The clinical relevance of 'CSF viral culture'. A two-year experience with aseptic meningitis in Rochester, NY. Chonmaitree, T., Menegus, M.A., Powell, K.R. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Chronic relapsing pericarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: serological evidence of persistent enterovirus infection. Muir, P., Nicholson, F., Tilzey, A.J., Signy, M., English, T.A., Banatvala, J.E. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Detection of enterovirus RNA in myocardial biopsies from patients with myocarditis and cardiomyopathy using gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Jin, O., Sole, M.J., Butany, J.W., Chia, W.K., McLaughlin, P.R., Liu, P., Liew, C.C. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. HCAR and MCAR: the human and mouse cellular receptors for subgroup C adenoviruses and group B coxsackieviruses. Tomko, R.P., Xu, R., Philipson, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Enterovirus antibody levels during the first two years of life in prediabetic autoantibody-positive children. Sadeharju, K., Lönnrot, M., Kimpimäki, T., Savola, K., Erkkilä, S., Kalliokoski, T., Savolainen, P., Koskela, P., Ilonen, J., Simell, O., Knip, M., Hyöty, H. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Chronic myopathy associated with coxsackievirus type A9. A combined electron microscopical and viral isolation study. Tang, T.T., Sedmak, G.V., Siegesmund, K.A., McCreadie, S.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Dystrophin deficiency markedly increases enterovirus-induced cardiomyopathy: a genetic predisposition to viral heart disease. Xiong, D., Lee, G.H., Badorff, C., Dorner, A., Lee, S., Wolf, P., Knowlton, K.U. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Enterovirus infection and cardiomyopathy in Cameroon. Blackett, K. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Detection of adenoviral genome in the myocardium of adult patients with idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction. Pauschinger, M., Bowles, N.E., Fuentes-Garcia, F.J., Pham, V., Kühl, U., Schwimmbeck, P.L., Schultheiss, H.P., Towbin, J.A. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Maternal first-trimester enterovirus infection and future risk of type 1 diabetes in the exposed fetus. Viskari, H.R., Roivainen, M., Reunanen, A., Pitkäniemi, J., Sadeharju, K., Koskela, P., Hovi, T., Leinikki, P., Vilja, P., Tuomilehto, J., Hyöty, H. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A subset of mouse monoclonal antibodies cross-reactive with cytoskeletal proteins and group A streptococcal M proteins recognizes N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine. Shikhman, A.R., Greenspan, N.S., Cunningham, M.W. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Coxsackie virus B4 produces transient diabetes in nonhuman primates. Yoon, J.W., London, W.T., Curfman, B.L., Brown, R.L., Notkins, A.L. Diabetes (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Poliovirus infection of cyclophosphamide-treated mice results in persistence and late paralysis: I. Clinical, pathologic, and immunologic studies. Jubelt, B., Meagher, J.B. Neurology (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Sialic acid functions in enterovirus 70 binding and infection. Alexander, D.A., Dimock, K. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Replicase gene of coxsackievirus B3. Stålhandske, P.O., Lindberg, M., Pettersson, U. J. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. The detection of cardiotropic viruses in the myocardium of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Bowles, N.E., Ni, J., Marcus, F., Towbin, J.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Polypeptide p41 of a Norwalk-like virus is a nucleic acid-independent nucleoside triphosphatase. Pfister, T., Wimmer, E. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Biological significance of a human enterovirus B-specific RNA element in the 3' nontranslated region. Merkle, I., van Ooij, M.J., van Kuppeveld, F.J., Glaudemans, D.H., Galama, J.M., Henke, A., Zell, R., Melchers, W.J. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Islet cell antibody seroconversion in children is temporally associated with enterovirus infections. Childhood Diabetes in Finland (DiMe) Study Group. Hiltunen, M., Hyöty, H., Knip, M., Ilonen, J., Reijonen, H., Vähäsalo, P., Roivainen, M., Lonnrot, M., Leinikki, P., Hovi, T., Akerblom, H.K. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infection by magnetic bead extraction and polymerase chain reaction detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical specimens. Muir, P., Nicholson, F., Jhetam, M., Neogi, S., Banatvala, J.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. End-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. Persistence of enterovirus RNA in myocardium at cardiac transplantation and lack of immune response. Bowles, N.E., Rose, M.L., Taylor, P., Banner, N.R., Morgan-Capner, P., Cunningham, L., Archard, L.C., Yacoub, M.H. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. T-cell responses to enterovirus antigens in children with type 1 diabetes. Juhela, S., Hyöty, H., Roivainen, M., Härkönen, T., Putto-Laurila, A., Simell, O., Ilonen, J. Diabetes (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of a YAC-1 mouse cell receptor for group B coxsackieviruses. Hsu, K.H., Crowell, R.L. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Importance of arginine 20 of the swine vesicular disease virus 2A protease for activity and virulence. Inoue, T., Alexandersen, S., Clark, A.T., Murphy, C., Quan, M., Reid, S.M., Sakoda, Y., Johns, H.L., Belsham, G.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Detection and cellular localization of enterovirus RNA sequences in spinal cord of patients with ALS. Berger, M.M., Kopp, N., Vital, C., Redl, B., Aymard, M., Lina, B. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Short consensus repeat domain 1 of decay-accelerating factor is required for enterovirus 70 binding. Karnauchow, T.M., Dawe, S., Lublin, D.M., Dimock, K. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental viral myocarditis. Glück, B., Merkle, I., Dornberger, G., Stelzner, A. Herz. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Antibody and interferon act synergistically to inhibit enterovirus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus infection. Langford, M.P., Villarreal, A.L., Stanton, G.J. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Enterovirus 71 contains a type I IRES element that functions when eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4G is cleaved. Thompson, S.R., Sarnow, P. Virology (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Enterovirus infections with beta-cell tropic strains are frequent in siblings of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes children and in association with elevated levels of GAD65 antibodies. Frisk, G., Tuvemo, T. J. Med. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Lack of detection of enteroviral RNA or bacterial DNA in magnetic resonance imaging-directed muscle biopsies from twenty children with active untreated juvenile dermatomyositis. Pachman, L.M., Litt, D.L., Rowley, A.H., Hayford, J.R., Caliendo, J., Heller, S., Ticho, B.S., Christensen, M., Patterson, B., Ytterberg, S.R. Arthritis Rheum. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Natural history of Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in ACA/Sn mice: viral persistence demonstrated by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. Mall, G., Klingel, K., Albrecht, M., Seemann, M., Rieger, P., Kandolf, R. Eur. Heart J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Activity of pleconaril against enteroviruses. Pevear, D.C., Tull, T.M., Seipel, M.E., Groarke, J.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of Coxsackie B virus RNA in myocardium from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy by nucleotide sequencing of reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction products. Archard, L.C., Khan, M.A., Soteriou, B.A., Zhang, H., Why, H.J., Robinson, N.M., Richardson, P.J. Hum. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Seroepidemiologic studies of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis virus (enterovirus type 70) in West Africa. III. Studies with animal sera from Ghana and Senegal. Kono, R., Sasagawa, A., Yamazaki, S., Nakazono, N., Minami, K., Otatsume, S., Robin, Y., Renaudet, J., Cornet, M., Afoakwa, S.N., Mingle, J.A., Obinim, J.K., Huros, A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities