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Gene Review

ppsA  -  phosphoenolpyruvate synthase

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1700, JW1692, pps
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Disease relevance of pps


High impact information on pps

  • Other regulated operons were shown to bind FruR to a single site upstream of the first structural gene as follows: (1) ppsA (positive regulation); (2) icd (positive regulation); (3) aceB (positive regulation); and (4) pts (negative regulation) [2].
  • Transposon mini-Tn10 insertional mutagenesis was applied to strain 406, which revealed that lpa-8 (sfp) (encoding 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase) and the pps operon (located between 167 and 171 degrees ) are essential for plipastatin production [3].
  • We found that the growth rates of E. coli in minimal medium supplemented with succinate and with pyruvate are limited by the levels of Pck and Pps, respectively [4].
  • Optimal overexpression of pck or pps increases the unrestricted growth rates on succinate and on pyruvate, respectively, to the same level attained by the wild-type growth rate on glycerol [4].
  • Partial phenotypic suppression of the pfkA mutant phenotype results from Tn10 insertion very close to the pps gene, ca. 0.5 min from pgkB [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of pps


Biological context of pps


Associations of pps with chemical compounds


Other interactions of pps

  • Further increases in either Pck or Pps above the optimal levels become growth inhibitory, and the growth yield for oxygen is reduced, indicating less efficient growth [4].


  1. Phosphoenolpyruvate availability and the biosynthesis of shikimic acid. Chandran, S.S., Yi, J., Draths, K.M., von Daeniken, R., Weber, W., Frost, J.W. Biotechnol. Prog. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro binding of the pleiotropic transcriptional regulatory protein, FruR, to the fru, pps, ace, pts and icd operons of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Ramseier, T.M., Nègre, D., Cortay, J.C., Scarabel, M., Cozzone, A.J., Saier, M.H. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. The genes degQ, pps, and lpa-8 (sfp) are responsible for conversion of Bacillus subtilis 168 to plipastatin production. Tsuge, K., Ano, T., Hirai, M., Nakamura, Y., Shoda, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Control of gluconeogenic growth by pps and pck in Escherichia coli. Chao, Y.P., Patnaik, R., Roof, W.D., Young, R.F., Liao, J.C. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Tn10 insertions in the pfkB region of Escherichia coli. Daldal, F., Fraenkel, D.G. J. Bacteriol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulation of phosphoenolpyruvate synthase expression increases shikimate pathway product yields in E. coli. Yi, J., Li, K., Draths, K.M., Frost, J.W. Biotechnol. Prog. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 ppsA gene, encoding PEP synthase. Niersbach, M., Kreuzaler, F., Geerse, R.H., Postma, P.W., Hirsch, H.J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Serial 13C-based flux analysis of an L-phenylalanine-producing E. coli strain using the sensor reactor. Wahl, A., El Massaoudi, M., Schipper, D., Wiechert, W., Takors, R. Biotechnol. Prog. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic and physiological characterization of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. Goldie, A.H., Sanwal, B.D. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene for pyruvate kinase of Bacillus stearothermophilus and the production of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. Evidence that the genes for phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase constitute an operon. Sakai, H., Ohta, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
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