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Gene Review

nodD2  -  LysR family transcriptional regulator

Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234

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Disease relevance of nodD2


High impact information on nodD2

  • Activation of transcription of nodD2 is also dependent on flavonoids despite the absence of a nod-box like sequence in the upstream promoter region [3].
  • Thus, NodD1, NodD2 and SyrM2 co-modulate a flavonoid-inducible regulatory cascade that coordinates the expression of symbiotic genes with nodule development [3].
  • In turn, NodD2 is involved in the repression of the NB8 nodABCIJnolOnoeI operon [3].
  • Mutational analysis showed that syrM 2 (another member of the LysR family), which is controlled by NB19, is also necessary for expression of nodD 2 [3].
  • This mutant (NGR omega nodD2) was deficient in nitrogen fixation on Vigna unguiculata and induced pseudonodules on Tephrosia vogelii [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of nodD2

  • Nine flavonoid aglycones released from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris 'PI165426CS') seeds and roots induced nodC::lacZ transcription in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains containing extra cloned copies of the regulatory genes nodD1, nodD2, or nodD3 from that biovar [4].
  • Flavonoids, NodD1, NodD2, and nod-box NB15 modulate expression of the y4wEFG locus that is required for indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 [5].

Biological context of nodD2


Anatomical context of nodD2

  • Transcription of nodD2 and nodD3 was constitutive. nodC of R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli was activated by each of the nodD genes of that biovar in the absence of inducers but expression was enhanced in cells grown with bean exudate or the flavonoids genistein or naringenin [7].

Associations of nodD2 with chemical compounds

  • While mixtures of the methoxychalcone and luteolin showed a positive synergism with extra NodD1 protein, they apparently competed for binding to the NodD2 protein [8].
  • The production of IAA is increased strongly by exposure of NGR234 to daidzein in a NodD1-, NodD2-, and SyrM2-dependent manner [5].

Other interactions of nodD2

  • Induction of the nodYABCSUIJ operon, as measured by expression of a translational nodC'-'lacZ fusion, required the nodD1 gene, but not nodD2 [2].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nodD2


  1. nodD2 of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 is involved in the repression of the nodABC operon. Fellay, R., Hanin, M., Montorzi, G., Frey, J., Freiberg, C., Golinowski, W., Staehelin, C., Broughton, W.J., Jabbouri, S. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Structural and functional analysis of two different nodD genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110. Göttfert, M., Holzhäuser, D., Bäni, D., Hennecke, H. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Flavonoids induce temporal shifts in gene-expression of nod-box controlled loci in Rhizobium sp. NGR234. Kobayashi, H., Naciri-Graven, Y., Broughton, W.J., Perret, X. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of flavonoids released naturally from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on nodD-regulated gene transcription in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli. Hungria, M., Johnston, A.W., Phillips, D.A. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Flavonoids, NodD1, NodD2, and nod-box NB15 modulate expression of the y4wEFG locus that is required for indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234. Theunis, M., Kobayashi, H., Broughton, W.J., Prinsen, E. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. DNA sequence of the common nodulation genes of Bradyrhizobium elkanii and their phylogenetic relationship to those of other nodulating bacteria. Dobert, R.C., Breil, B.T., Triplett, E.W. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulatory functions of the three nodD genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. Davis, E.O., Johnston, A.W. Mol. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of alfalfa nod gene-inducing flavonoids on nodABC transcription in Rhizobium meliloti strains containing different nodD genes. Hartwig, U.A., Maxwell, C.A., Joseph, C.M., Phillips, D.A. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence that two genomic species of Rhizobium are associated with Medicago truncatula. Rome, S., Brunel, B., Normand, P., Fernandez, M., Cleyet-Marel, J.C. Arch. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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