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MeSH Review

Phantom Limb

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Disease relevance of Phantom Limb


High impact information on Phantom Limb

  • The patient reported here complained of a supernumerary phantom limb during an exacerbation of MS [5].
  • Efficacy of the NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine in patients with chronic phantom limb pain--results of a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial [6].
  • Ketamine (bolus at 0.1 mg/kg/5 min followed by an infusion of 7 micrograms/kg/min) was administered intravenously to 11 patients with established stump and phantom limb pain in a double-blind saline-controlled study [7].
  • Hyperactivity of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may be one of the factors in the maintenance of persistent stump and phantom limb pain [7].
  • Fluoxetine in phantom limb pain [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phantom Limb


Anatomical context of Phantom Limb


Gene context of Phantom Limb

  • Both pain report and psychological distress were found to be related to use of strategies within factor 2 (Helplessness), the number of different drugs patients used, and the time they had experienced phantom limb pain [15].
  • CONCLUSION: The extent to which the subjective experience of perceived stiffness could be dissociated from the assumed original peripheral source was strikingly illustrated in RA patients with phantom limbs [16].
  • Intrathecal fentanyl and morphine supplementation of bupivacaine successfully abolished peri-operative phantom limb pain, whereas epidural anaesthesia was associated with recurrence of phantom limb pain upon regression of the block [17].
  • The approach has recently been extended to focal hand dystonia of musicians and possibly phantom limb pain [18].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Severe phantom limb pain after surgical amputation affects 50% to 67% of patients and is difficult to treat [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phantom Limb


  1. Ketamine in chronic pain management: an evidence-based review. Hocking, G., Cousins, M.J. Anesth. Analg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Flumazenil and dialysis for gabapentin-induced coma. Butler, T.C., Rosen, R.M., Wallace, A.L., Amsden, G.W. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The neurologic content of S. Weir Mitchell's fiction. Louis, E.D., Horn, S., Roth, L.A. Neurology (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Continuous brachial plexus analgesia and NMDA-receptor blockade in early phantom limb pain: a report of two cases. Kiefer, R.T., Wiech, K., Töpfner, S., Haerle, M., Schaller, H.E., Unertl, K., Birbaumer, N. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Phantom limb and multiple sclerosis. Mayeux, R., Benson, D.F. Neurology (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficacy of the NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine in patients with chronic phantom limb pain--results of a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Maier, C., Dertwinkel, R., Mansourian, N., Hosbach, I., Schwenkreis, P., Senne, I., Skipka, G., Zenz, M., Tegenthoff, M. Pain (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of ketamine on phantom pain: a central neuropathic disorder maintained by peripheral input. Nikolajsen, L., Hansen, C.L., Nielsen, J., Keller, J., Arendt-Nielsen, L., Jensen, T.S. Pain (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Fluoxetine in phantom limb pain. Power-Smith, P., Turkington, D. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Relief of persistent postamputation stump and phantom limb pain with intrathecal fentanyl. Jacobson, L., Chabal, C., Brody, M.C. Pain (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Phantom limb pain in amputees during the first 12 months following limb amputation, after preoperative lumbar epidural blockade. Bach, S., Noreng, M.F., Tjéllden, N.U. Pain (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Ketamine hydrochloride in the treatment of phantom limb pain. Stannard, C.F., Porter, G.E. Pain (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Pain responses to perineuromal injection of normal saline, gallamine, and lidocaine in humans. Chabal, C., Jacobson, L., Russell, L.C., Burchiel, K.J. Pain (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Postamputation pain and sensory changes in treatment-naive patients: characteristics and responses to treatment with tramadol, amitriptyline, and placebo. Wilder-Smith, C.H., Hill, L.T., Laurent, S. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Modulation of neuropathic pain in rats by intrathecally injected serotonergic agonists. Sanchez, A., Niedbala, B., Feria, M. Neuroreport (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. The use of pain coping strategies by patients with phantom limb pain. Hill, A. Pain (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Joint stiffness in a phantom limb: evidence of central nervous system involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Haigh, R.C., McCabe, C.S., Halligan, P.W., Blake, D.R. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Regional anaesthesia for repeat Caesarean section in a patient with phantom limb pain. Uncles, D.R., Glynn, C.J., Carrie, L.E. Anaesthesia. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: a new family of techniques with broad application to physical rehabilitation--a clinical review. Taub, E., Uswatte, G., Pidikiti, R. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Gabapentin in postamputation phantom limb pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Bone, M., Critchley, P., Buggy, D.J. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Thiopental for phantom limb pain during spinal anesthesia. Koyama, K., Watanabe, S., Tsuneto, S., Takahashi, H., Naito, H. Anesthesiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Methadone for phantom limb pain. Bergmans, L., Snijdelaar, D.G., Katz, J., Crul, B.J. The Clinical journal of pain. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Reorganization of human cerebral cortex: the range of changes following use and injury. Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B. The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
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