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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Coma


Psychiatry related information on Coma


High impact information on Coma


Chemical compound and disease context of Coma

  • The frequency of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose below 2.2 mmol/l) did not differ significantly between malarial and control patients (5.2% vs 11.2%) nor between the comatose (11.1% vs 18.8%) and conscious (1.6% vs 7.0%) malarial and control subgroups [12].
  • Since the average number of hours from the beginning of vomiting to admission was no different in non-comatose and comatose cases, the time at which salicylate concentration was measured in relation to the last dose was probably similar in the two groups and therefore does not account for the higher levels in children with poor outcome [13].
  • In two of these cases, status seizures were stopped by intravenous pyridoxine administration, but the patients remained comatose for prolonged periods [14].
  • Combined infusion of high doses of lidocaine and thiopental in a comatose patient induced major latency and amplitude BAEP changes, which progressed to complete BAEP abolition [15].
  • The patient remained in a comatose state for 4 days but then showed dramatic improvement in his neurological status following continuous i.v. infusion of thymidine at 8 g/m2/day [16].

Biological context of Coma

  • The TRAN group had a higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (17.5 versus 11.0, P < 0.05), lower Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) (13.3 versus 14.1, P < 0.05), lower initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) (130 versus 140, P< 0.05), and higher mortality (10% versus 79%, P < 0.05) than the DIR group [17].
  • Partial OTC deficiency also occurs in females and can be responsible for life-threatening hyperammonemic comas in heterozygotes [18].
  • Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and the Glasgow Coma Scale as predictors of outcome in comatose patients with head injuries [19].
  • After initiation of treatment with acyclovir in the early stage of the disease, the outcomes in both patients were characterized by good general recovery with persistence of deficits of speech, mastication, and swallowing, more pronounced in the patient who was comatose during the illness [20].
  • In an attempt to examine the relationship between growth hormone (GH) and periarticular new bone formation (PNBF), we studied eight patients with brain lesions of different origins who were in a prolonged comatose state for 164 to 1320 days [21].

Anatomical context of Coma


Gene context of Coma

  • In addition, the entire vesicle pool can be depleted in shibire comatose double mutants, demonstrating that NSF activity is not required for the fusion step itself [27].
  • Regarding clinical and radiological features, elevated NGF/BDNF levels in the CSF correlated with higher incidence of seizures and prolonged comatose state and with specific radiological lesions [28].
  • The ABRs already showed features which were characteristic for brain death (loss of components other than wave 1 or small wave 2) for four comatose recordings, in three of which N18 was preserved [29].
  • The increment in T3 concentrations 120 min after TRH was found reduced in the comatose patients only [30].
  • This was further supported by low NSE/S100B concentration ratios in serum compared to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with comatose state, convulsive status, or intracerebral hemorrhage [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Coma

  • The intravenous injection of glucose as a "therapeutic test" in comatose diabetics is reviewed in the light of evidence that it may evoke a paradoxical rise in plasma-potassium in the insulin-deprived diabetic [32].
  • Survival was 83% in patients with grade 1 and 2 comas at transplantation versus 56% (p < 0.001) in those with grade 3 comas; it was 51% versus 81% (p < 0.001) in those transplanted with high risk (ABO-incompatible, split, or steatotic) and low-risk grafts, respectively [33].
  • CONCLUSION: This large-scale EEG evaluation of comatose patients without clinical signs of seizure activity found that NCSE is an underrecognized cause of coma, occurring in 8% of all comatose patients without signs of seizure activity [34].
  • (12) examined 13 comatose patients with advanced coma stages (Glasgow coma scale 5-10) and recorded unspecific changes in their EEG tracings [35].
  • After cuprophan hemodialysis, plasma total tryptophan is lower than in normal and even comatose animals, whereas free tryptophan is normal [36].


  1. Lidoflazine in the treatment of comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Engler, R.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Lithium carbonate intoxication. A case report and review of the literature. Simard, M., Gumbiner, B., Lee, A., Lewis, H., Norman, D. Arch. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Protective effect of intravenously administered cefuroxime against nosocomial pneumonia in patients with structural coma. Sirvent, J.M., Torres, A., El-Ebiary, M., Castro, P., de Batlle, J., Bonet, A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and homovanillic acid concentrations in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Minegishi, A., Ishizaki, T., Yoshida, Y., Ahagon, A., Shibata, N., Kobayashi, H. Stroke (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Onset seizures independently predict poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Butzkueven, H., Evans, A.H., Pitman, A., Leopold, C., Jolley, D.J., Kaye, A.H., Kilpatrick, C.J., Davis, S.M. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Blood concentrations and clinical findings in nonfatal and fatal intoxications involving glutethimide and codeine. Bailey, D.N., Shaw, R.F. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Chloroquine treatment of severe malaria in children. Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and new dosage recommendations. White, N.J., Miller, K.D., Churchill, F.C., Berry, C., Brown, J., Williams, S.B., Greenwood, B.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Amino acid acylation: a mechanism of nitrogen excretion in inborn errors of urea synthesis. Brusilow, S., Tinker, J., Batshaw, M.L. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of phenobarbital overdose with activated charcoal. Goldberg, M.J., Berlinger, W.G. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Prolonged sedation due to accumulation of conjugated metabolites of midazolam. Bauer, T.M., Ritz, R., Haberthür, C., Ha, H.R., Hunkeler, W., Sleight, A.J., Scollo-Lavizzari, G., Haefeli, W.E. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Eliciting P300 in comatose patients. Signorino, M., D'Acunto, S., Angeleri, F., Pietropaoli, P. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Specificity of hypoglycaemia for cerebral malaria in children. Kawo, N.G., Msengi, A.E., Swai, A.B., Chuwa, L.M., Alberti, K.G., McLarty, D.G. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Serum salicylate concentrations in Reye's disease. A study of 130 biopsy-proven cases. Partin, J.S., Partin, J.C., Schubert, W.K., Hammond, J.G. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Reversal of prolonged isoniazid-induced coma by pyridoxine. Brent, J., Vo, N., Kulig, K., Rumack, B.H. Arch. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Transient drug-induced abolition of BAEPs in coma. García-Larrea, L., Artru, F., Bertrand, O., Pernier, J., Mauguière, F. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Severe neurotoxicity following 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in a patient with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. Takimoto, C.H., Lu, Z.H., Zhang, R., Liang, M.D., Larson, L.V., Cantilena, L.R., Grem, J.L., Allegra, C.J., Diasio, R.B., Chu, E. Clin. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Transfer times to definitive care facilities are too long: a consequence of an immature trauma system. Harrington, D.T., Connolly, M., Biffl, W.L., Majercik, S.D., Cioffi, W.G. Ann. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Fatal hyperammonemia resulting from a C-to-T mutation at a MspI site of the ornithine transcarbamylase gene. Hentzen, D., Pelet, A., Feldman, D., Rabier, D., Berthelot, J., Munnich, A. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and the Glasgow Coma Scale as predictors of outcome in comatose patients with head injuries. Houlden, D.A., Li, C., Schwartz, M.L., Katic, M. Neurosurgery (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Operculum syndrome: unusual feature of herpes simplex encephalitis. van der Poel, J.C., Haenggeli, C.A., Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C. Pediatric neurology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Growth hormone and periarticular new bone formation--a causal relationship? A preliminary communication. Sazbon, L., Sack, J., Najenson, T., Lunenfeld, B. Scandinavian journal of rehabilitation medicine. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Regional differences in the capacity for ammonia removal by brain following portocaval anastomosis. Butterworth, R.F., Girard, G., Giguère, J.F. J. Neurochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of hypoglycemia on rat brain polyribosome sedimentation pattern. Ulovec, Z., Narancsik, P., Gamulin, S. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Correlation of regional metabolic rates of glucose with glasgow coma scale after traumatic brain injury. Hattori, N., Huang, S.C., Wu, H.M., Yeh, E., Glenn, T.C., Vespa, P.M., McArthur, D., Phelps, M.E., Hovda, D.A., Bergsneider, M. J. Nucl. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Amine metabolites in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid in coma. Yates, C.M., Tsementzis, S.A., Wilson, H. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. The effect of thiopentone on somatosensory evoked responses and EEGs in comatose patients. Ganes, T., Lundar, T. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. SNARE-complex disassembly by NSF follows synaptic-vesicle fusion. Littleton, J.T., Barnard, R.J., Titus, S.A., Slind, J., Chapman, E.R., Ganetzky, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of neurotrophic factors in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of children with viral and bacterial meningoencephalitis. Chiaretti, A., Antonelli, A., Piastra, M., Genovese, O., Polidori, G., Aloe, L. Acta Paediatr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. N18 in median somatosensory evoked potentials: a new indicator of medullary function useful for the diagnosis of brain death. Sonoo, M., Tsai-Shozawa, Y., Aoki, M., Nakatani, T., Hatanaka, Y., Mochizuki, A., Sawada, M., Kobayashi, K., Shimizu, T. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Thyrotrophin, prolactin and growth hormone responses to TRH in barbiturate coma and in depression. Naeije, R., Golstein, J., Zegers De Beyl, D., Linkowski, P., Mendlewicz, J., Copinschi, G., Badawi, M., Leclercq, R., L'Hermite, M., Vanhaelst, L. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. Studies of the brain specificity of S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in blood serum of acute care patients. Kleine, T.O., Benes, L., Zöfel, P. Brain Res. Bull. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Glucose-induced hyperkalaemia: A hazard for diabetics? Viberti, G.C. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  33. Orthotopic liver transplantation in fulminant and subfulminant hepatitis. The Paul Brousse experience. Bismuth, H., Samuel, D., Castaing, D., Adam, R., Saliba, F., Johann, M., Azoulay, D., Ducot, B., Chiche, L. Ann. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Prevalence of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in comatose patients. Towne, A.R., Waterhouse, E.J., Boggs, J.G., Garnett, L.K., Brown, A.J., Smith, J.R., DeLorenzo, R.J. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy: the diagnostic value of evoked potentials. Kullmann, F., Hollerbach, S., Holstege, A., Schölmerich, J. J. Hepatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Relationship between plasma and brain tryptophan in pigs during experimental hepatic coma before and after hemodialysis with selective membranes. Delorme, M.L., Denis, J., Nordlinger, B., Boschat, M., Opolon, P. J. Neurochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
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