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Chemical Compound Review

Tramadol     (1R,2R)-2- (dimethylaminomethyl)-1-(3...

Synonyms: Tridural, Amanda, Tramadolum, Tramal, Ultram, ...
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Disease relevance of Tramadol


Psychiatry related information on Tramadol


High impact information on Tramadol


Chemical compound and disease context of Tramadol


Biological context of Tramadol


Anatomical context of Tramadol

  • Effect of modern analgesic drugs (tramadol, pentazocine, and buprenorphine) on the bile duct sphincter in man [17].
  • The biliary pressure in the control studies was similar to that following administration of all analgesics in the animals with gallbladder and following instillation of tramadol, metamizol, and acetylsalicylic acid in animals with no gallbladder [22].
  • In extensive metabolizers, tramadol increased pressure pain detection (p = 0.03) and tolerance (p = 0.06) thresholds, as well as thresholds for eliciting nociceptive reflexes, after single (p = 0.0002) and repeated (p = 0.06) stimulation of the sural nerve [23].
  • A total of 456 patients with moderate-to-severe pain within 5 h after extraction of two or more third molars were randomized to receive two identical encapsulated tablets containing tramadol/APAP 37.5 mg/325 mg, tramadol 50 mg, or placebo [24].
  • We investigated the effects of acute and chronic tramadol treatment on T lymphocyte function and natural killer (NK) cell activity in rats receiving chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve [25].

Associations of Tramadol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Tramadol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tramadol

  • However, in most animal tests and human clinical trials, the analgesic effect of tramadol is only partially blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone, suggesting an important nonopioid mechanism [33].
  • These data indicated that the effects of such drugs on bile duct sphincter function can be safely assessed by ERCP manometry and that pentazocine adversely affects the bile duct sphincter, whilst tramadol and buprenorphine do not [17].
  • Patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol has been frequently employed and was well accepted by the patients [4].
  • New pharmacokinetic data show that steady-state plasma tramadol concentrations reached after oral administration of 50 mg doses every 6 hours are similar to those obtained after administration of a 100 mg single oral dose (250 micrograms/L) [34].
  • Use of cyclodextrins in capillary electrophoresis: resolution of tramadol enantiomers [35].


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  2. Double-blind randomized trial of tramadol for the treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Harati, Y., Gooch, C., Swenson, M., Edelman, S., Greene, D., Raskin, P., Donofrio, P., Cornblath, D., Sachdeo, R., Siu, C.O., Kamin, M. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of tramadol in painful polyneuropathy in relation to serum drug and metabolite levels. Sindrup, S.H., Madsen, C., Brøsen, K., Jensen, T.S. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Tramadol for the management of acute pain. Lehmann, K.A. Drugs (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Tramadol dependence with no history of substance abuse. Yates, W.R., Nguyen, M.H., Warnock, J.K. The American journal of psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Treatment of anorexia nervosa with tramadol. Mendelson, S.D. The American journal of psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with tramadol: an open study. Lauerma, H., Markkula, J. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Postamputation pain and sensory changes in treatment-naive patients: characteristics and responses to treatment with tramadol, amitriptyline, and placebo. Wilder-Smith, C.H., Hill, L.T., Laurent, S. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Plasma glucose-lowering effect of tramadol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cheng, J.T., Liu, I.M., Chi, T.C., Tzeng, T.F., Lu, F.H., Chang, C.J. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Tramadol and acetaminophen combination tablets in the treatment of fibromyalgia pain: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Bennett, R.M., Kamin, M., Karim, R., Rosenthal, N. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of analgesia with a focus on tramadol HCl. Gibson, T.P. Am. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Tramadol: a review of its use in perioperative pain. Scott, L.J., Perry, C.M. Drugs (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Tramadol added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia. Acalovschi, I., Cristea, T., Margarit, S., Gavrus, R. Anesth. Analg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy of three doses of tramadol with bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in paediatric inguinal herniotomy. Prakash, S., Tyagi, R., Gogia, A.R., Singh, R., Prakash, S. British journal of anaesthesia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of tramadol and O-demethyl-tramadol on human 5-HT reuptake carriers and human 5-HT3A receptors: a possible mechanism for tramadol-induced early emesis. Barann, M., Urban, B., Stamer, U., Dorner, Z., Bönisch, H., Brüss, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Postoperative sensitization and pain after cesarean delivery and the effects of single im doses of tramadol and diclofenac alone and in combination. Wilder-Smith, C.H., Hill, L., Dyer, R.A., Torr, G., Coetzee, E. Anesth. Analg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of modern analgesic drugs (tramadol, pentazocine, and buprenorphine) on the bile duct sphincter in man. Staritz, M., Poralla, T., Manns, M., Meyer Zum Büschenfelde, K.H. Gut (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Tramadol as a new probe for cytochrome P450 2D6 phenotyping: a population study. Pedersen, R.S., Damkier, P., Brosen, K. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Tramadol sustained-release capsules. Keating, G.M. Drugs (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Opioid and opioid-like drug effects on whole-gut transit measured by scintigraphy. Maurer, A.H., Krevsky, B., Knight, L.C., Brown, K. J. Nucl. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Impact of CYP2D6 genotype on postoperative tramadol analgesia. Stamer, U.M., Lehnen, K., Höthker, F., Bayerer, B., Wolf, S., Hoeft, A., Stuber, F. Pain (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of analgesic drugs on the electromyographic activity of the gastrointestinal tract and sphincter of Oddi and on biliary pressure. Coelho, J.C., Senninger, N., Runkel, N., Herfarth, C., Messmer, K. Ann. Surg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. The hypoalgesic effect of tramadol in relation to CYP2D6. Poulsen, L., Arendt-Nielsen, L., Brøsen, K., Sindrup, S.H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. A double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of tramadol/acetaminophen and tramadol in patients with postoperative dental pain. Fricke, J.R., Hewitt, D.J., Jordan, D.M., Fisher, A., Rosenthal, N.R. Pain (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of tramadol on T lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity in rats with sciatic constriction injury. Tsai, Y.C., Won, S.J. Pain (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Paroxetine, a cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitor, diminishes the stereoselective O-demethylation and reduces the hypoalgesic effect of tramadol. Laugesen, S., Enggaard, T.P., Pedersen, R.S., Sindrup, S.H., Brøsen, K. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Simultaneous determination of ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection. Li, J., Ju, H. Electrophoresis (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Infinite enantiomeric resolution of basic compounds using highly sulfated cyclodextrin as chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis. Rudaz, S., Calleri, E., Geiser, L., Cherkaoui, S., Prat, J., Veuthey, J.L. Electrophoresis (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. In vivo effect of tramadol on locus coeruleus neurons is mediated by alpha2-adrenoceptors and modulated by serotonin. Berrocoso, E., Micó, J.A., Ugedo, L. Neuropharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Pain treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor after coronary artery bypass operation: a randomized trial. Immer, F.F., Immer-Bansi, A.S., Trachsel, N., Berdat, P.A., Eigenmann, V., Curatolo, M., Carrel, T.P. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification of cytochrome P-450 isoforms responsible for cis-tramadol metabolism in human liver microsomes. Subrahmanyam, V., Renwick, A.B., Walters, D.G., Young, P.J., Price, R.J., Tonelli, A.P., Lake, B.G. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Isobolographic analysis of interaction between cyclooxygenase inhibitors and tramadol in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Satyanarayana, P.S., Jain, N.K., Singh, A., Kulkarni, S.K. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. A novel approach to the pharmacology of analgesics. Raffa, R.B. Am. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. New clinical experience with tramadol. Sunshine, A. Drugs (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Use of cyclodextrins in capillary electrophoresis: resolution of tramadol enantiomers. Rudaz, S., Veuthey, J.L., Desiderio, C., Fanali, S. Electrophoresis (1998) [Pubmed]
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