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MeSH Review

Anesthesia, Spinal

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Disease relevance of Anesthesia, Spinal


Psychiatry related information on Anesthesia, Spinal


High impact information on Anesthesia, Spinal


Chemical compound and disease context of Anesthesia, Spinal


Biological context of Anesthesia, Spinal


Anatomical context of Anesthesia, Spinal

  • Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 44 pregnant women undergoing spinal anesthesia for delivery were studied to determine whether an abdomen distended with a full-term fetus could alter the dynamics of lumbar CSF [21].
  • BACKGROUND: Delivery of large doses of local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia by repeated injections or continuous infusion could expose the cauda equina to concentrations of drug that may be neurotoxic per se [22].
  • The increase in duration of spinal anesthesia with clonidine may be related to a direct post-synaptic alpha 2 adrenoceptor arteriolar effect, a spinal cord pre- or post-synaptic alpha 2 antinociceptive action or supraspinal alpha 2 modulation of nociception [23].
  • METHODS: Three milliliters (15 mg) of hyperbaric bupivacaine, 0.5%, was injected intrathecally in 40 patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or H scheduled for lower limb surgery during spinal anesthesia [24].
  • We studied this possible neurotoxic effect by assessing recovery from conduction blockade of desheathed peripheral nerves after exposure to some of the local anesthetic solutions commonly used for spinal anesthesia [22].

Associations of Anesthesia, Spinal with chemical compounds

  • In eight patients undergoing similar operations during low spinal anesthesia, no inhibition of the AIR to glucose occurred, and plasma NE and Epi did not increase significantly during or after the operation [25].
  • Thirty otherwise healthy patients received a 100-mg oral dose of chlordiazepoxide HCl just prior to surgical procedures using spinal anesthesia [26].
  • Each patient was studied before, during, and after bupivacaine-induced spinal anesthesia (mean sensory block: T4) [27].
  • METHODS: The number of patients to be enrolled (100 per group) was determined by power analysis (80%, P = 0.05) considering an incidence of TNSs after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine of at least 11% according to data reported in other studies [2].
  • Spinal anesthesia using tetracaine has been reported to produce a decrease in plasma catecholamine concentrations [28].

Gene context of Anesthesia, Spinal

  • RESULTS: Both plasma and CSF levels of IL-6 increased substantially after major surgery with either general or spinal anesthesia [29].
  • Neither halothane nor combined halothane/spinal anesthesia had any effect on the interleukin-6 stress response in the absence of surgical stress [30].
  • METHODS: CSF was collected from preeclamptic patients (n=15) and controls (n=7) at the time of spinal anesthesia and assayed for PlGF, sFlt-1, and VEGF (total and free) by specific immunoassays [31].
  • METHODS: Six male volunteers participated on three consecutive study days: epidural or spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned on the 1st and 3rd days (approximately T10 level); no anesthesia was given on the 2nd day [32].
  • We studied the effects of intrathecal LY293558, a competitive non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, on motor and sensory function in rats to determine whether drugs blocking these receptors could potentially be used as alternative agents to local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anesthesia, Spinal


  1. Prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: an effective technique using combination phenylephrine infusion and crystalloid cohydration. Kee, W.D., Khaw, K.S., Ng, F.F. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Incidence of transient neurologic symptoms after hyperbaric subarachnoid anesthesia with 5% lidocaine and 5% prilocaine. Martínez-Bourio, R., Arzuaga, M., Quintana, J.M., Aguilera, L., Aguirre, J., Sáez-Eguilaz, J.L., Arízaga, A. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Postoperative apnea in former preterm infants: prospective comparison of spinal and general anesthesia. Welborn, L.G., Rice, L.J., Hannallah, R.S., Broadman, L.M., Ruttimann, U.E., Fink, R. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Spinal epidural hematoma after spinal anesthesia in a patient treated with clopidogrel and enoxaparin. Litz, R.J., Gottschlich, B., Stehr, S.N. Anesthesiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of alpha adrenergic blockade, combined nicotinic and muscarinic ganglion blockade and spinal anesthesia upon norepinephrine depression of ganglion transmission in the dog. Hilton, J.G. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Tenoxicam does not enhance the spread of sensory block produced by intrathecal lidocaine. Fassoulaki, A., Sarantopoulos, C., Zotou, M. Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of subarachnoid lidocaine and combined subarachnoid lidocaine and epidural bupivacaine on electrical sensory thresholds. Dirkes, W.E., Rosenberg, J., Lund, C., Kehlet, H. Regional anesthesia. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Spinal anesthesia and mini-dose heparin. Parnass, S.M., Rothenberg, D.M., Fischer, R.L., Ivankovich, A.D. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Spinal anesthesia in obstructive cardiomyopathy. Butterworth, J.F. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. A dominantly inherited syndrome with continuous motor neuron discharges. Ashizawa, T., Butler, I.J., Harati, Y., Roongta, S.M. Ann. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Association of low serum anticholinergic levels and cognitive impairment in elderly presurgical patients. Miller, P.S., Richardson, J.S., Jyu, C.A., Lemay, J.S., Hiscock, M., Keegan, D.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Forsman, M., Fleischer, J.E., Milde, J.H., Steen, P.A., Michenfelder, J.D. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Transient neurologic symptoms after spinal anesthesia: a lower incidence with prilocaine and bupivacaine than with lidocaine. Hampl, K.F., Heinzmann-Wiedmer, S., Luginbuehl, I., Harms, C., Seeberger, M., Schneider, M.C., Drasner, K. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. The addition of phenylephrine contributes to the development of transient neurologic symptoms after spinal anesthesia with 0.5% tetracaine. Sakura, S., Sumi, M., Sakaguchi, Y., Saito, Y., Kosaka, Y., Drasner, K. Anesthesiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Respiratory depression with addition of fentanyl to spinal anesthesia. Liu, S.S., Neal, J.M., Pollock, J.E., Allen, H.W., Mulroy, M.F. Anesth. Analg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Hypomagnesemia and low alkaline phosphatase activity in patients' serum after cardiac surgery. Lum, G., Marquardt, C., Khuri, S.F. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of intrathecally administered local anesthetics on protein phosphorylation in the spinal cord. Nivarthi, R.N., Grant, G.J., Turndorf, H., Bansinath, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Norepinephrine facilitates inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinosa of adult rat spinal cord (part 1): effects on axon terminals of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Baba, H., Shimoji, K., Yoshimura, M. Anesthesiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. beta2-adrenoceptor genotype affects vasopressor requirements during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Smiley, R.M., Blouin, J.L., Negron, M., Landau, R. Anesthesiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid progesterone concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Datta, S., Hurley, R.J., Naulty, J.S., Stern, P., Lambert, D.H., Concepcion, M., Tulchinsky, D., Weiss, J.B., Ostheimer, G.W. Anesth. Analg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Normal laboratory values of CSF during pregnancy. Davis, L.E. Arch. Neurol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Irreversible conduction block in isolated nerve by high concentrations of local anesthetics. Lambert, L.A., Lambert, D.H., Strichartz, G.R. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Dose-response relationship of clonidine in tetracaine spinal anesthesia. Mensink, F.J., Kozody, R., Kehler, C.H., Wade, J.G. Anesthesiology (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Extent of hyperbaric spinal anesthesia influences the duration of spinal block. Kooger Infante, N.E., Van Gessel, E., Forster, A., Gamulin, Z. Anesthesiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Relationship of impaired insulin secretion during surgical stress to anesthesia and catecholamine release. Halter, J.B., Pflug, A.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of chlordiazepoxide and its metabolites in surgical patients. Stanski, D.R., Greenblatt, D.J., Selwyn, A., Shader, R.I., Franke, K., Koch-Weser, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Sympathovagal effects of spinal anesthesia assessed by the spontaneous cardiac baroreflex. Gratadour, P., Viale, J.P., Parlow, J., Sagnard, P., Counioux, H., Bagou, G., Annat, G., Hughson, R., Quintin, L. Anesthesiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Does spinal anesthesia result in a more complete sympathetic block than that from epidural anesthesia? Stevens, R.A., Beardsley, D., White, J.L., Kao, T.C., Gantt, R., Holman, S. Anesthesiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels after surgery with spinal or general anesthesia. Yeager, M.P., Lunt, P., Arruda, J., Whalen, K., Rose, R., DeLeo, J.A. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of type of anesthesia and lower-abdominal laparotomy in mice on the cytokine response to acute stress. Fu, E.S., Norman, J.G., Scharf, J.E., Burdash, N. Regional anesthesia. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Placental growth factor in the cerebrospinal fluid of women with preeclampsia. Foyouzi, N., Norwitz, E.R., Tsen, L.C., Buhimschi, C.S., Buhimschi, I.A. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Thermoregulatory thresholds during epidural and spinal anesthesia. Ozaki, M., Kurz, A., Sessler, D.I., Lenhardt, R., Schroeder, M., Moayeri, A., Noyes, K.M., Rotheneder, E. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia. Von Bergen, N.H., Subieta, A., Brennan, T.J. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Phenylephrine added to prophylactic ephedrine infusion during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Mercier, F.J., Riley, E.T., Frederickson, W.L., Roger-Christoph, S., Benhamou, D., Cohen, S.E. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Spinally administered epinephrine suppresses noxiously evoked activity of WDR neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Collins, J.G., Kitahata, L.M., Matsumoto, M., Homma, E., Suzukawa, M. Anesthesiology (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Dose-response characteristics of spinal bupivacaine in volunteers. Clinical implications for ambulatory anesthesia. Liu, S.S., Ware, P.D., Allen, H.W., Neal, J.M., Pollock, J.E. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Oral clonidine prolongs lidocaine spinal anesthesia in human volunteers. Liu, S., Chiu, A.A., Neal, J.M., Carpenter, R.L., Bainton, B.G., Gerancher, J.C. Anesthesiology (1995) [Pubmed]
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