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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Calciphylaxis


High impact information on Calciphylaxis

  • Intraarticular calciphylaxis with cartilage and synovial calcification was produced in rabbits by oral administration of a single dose of dehydrotachysterol followed by an intraarticular injection of ferrous chloride [6].
  • Although most calciphylaxis patients have abnormalities of the calcium:phosphate axis or elevated levels of parathyroid hormone, these abnormalities do not appear to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of the disorder, and the etiology of calciphylaxis remains unclear [7].
  • PURPOSE: To determine if the natural anticoagulant protein C plays a role in the pathogenesis of systemic calciphylaxis, a syndrome characterized by extensive vascular and soft tissue calcification and skin necrosis, which is similar to that seen in warfarin-induced skin necrosis [1].
  • However, OPN and MGP were expressed at sites of calcification within atherosclerotic lesions and in microvessels in calciphylaxis, suggesting that calcification in different sized vessels may occur by a common mechanism [8].
  • TSP-1 and COMP were also detected in areas of microcalcification in atherosclerotic lesions and TSP-1 was detected adjacent to areas of calcification in calciphylaxis [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Calciphylaxis


Biological context of Calciphylaxis


Anatomical context of Calciphylaxis


Gene context of Calciphylaxis

  • We present the first case of calciphylaxis occurring in a patient with both normal renal function and parathyroid hormone level and discuss the possible aetiological role of chemotherapy-induced functional protein C and protein S deficiency [20].
  • Protein malnutrition increases the likelihood of calciphylaxis, as does warfarin use and hypercoagulable states, such as protein C and/or protein S deficiency [21].
  • METHODS: We present a case of a 26-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease taking intramuscular injections of erythropoietin in whom systemic calciphylaxis subsequently developed [22].
  • However, protein C activity was significantly reduced as measured by chromogenic (p less than 0.01) or anticoagulant assays (p less than 0.01) in patients with calciphylaxis compared with the other three groups [1].
  • The syndrome has been reviewed in the renal, dermatologic, and surgical literature under the term calciphylaxis, which describes a postulated pathogenetic mechanism whereby sensitization to an endogenous or exogenous substance (such as parathyroid hormone) predisposes to calcium deposition after exposure to a challenging agent [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Calciphylaxis


  1. Skin necrosis associated with acquired protein C deficiency in patients with renal failure and calciphylaxis. Mehta, R.L., Scott, G., Sloand, J.A., Francis, C.W. Am. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Calciphylaxis in a hemodialysis patient: appearance after parathyroidectomy during a psoriatic flare. Poch, E., Almirall, J., Alsina, M., del Río, R., Cases, A., Revert, L. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Calciphylaxis associated with cholangiocarcinoma treated with low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K. Riegert-Johnson, D.L., Kaur, J.S., Pfeifer, E.A. Mayo Clin. Proc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The amino bisphosphonate ibandronate prevents calciphylaxis in the rat at doses that inhibit bone resorption. Price, P.A., Omid, N., Than, T.N., Williamson, M.K. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Long-term intravenous sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of a patient with calciphylaxis. Brucculeri, M., Cheigh, J., Bauer, G., Serur, D. Seminars in dialysis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Experimental hydroxyapatite synovial and articular cartilage calcification: light and electron microscopic studies. Reginato, A.J., Schumacher, H.R., Brighton, C.T. Arthritis Rheum. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Calciphylaxis in chronic renal failure. Budisavljevic, M.N., Cheek, D., Ploth, D.W. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The involvement of matrix glycoproteins in vascular calcification and fibrosis: an immunohistochemical study. Canfield, A.E., Farrington, C., Dziobon, M.D., Boot-Handford, R.P., Heagerty, A.M., Kumar, S.N., Roberts, I.S. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Rapid resolution of calciphylaxis with intravenous sodium thiosulfate and continuous venovenous haemofiltration using low calcium replacement fluid: case report. Guerra, G., Shah, R.C., Ross, E.A. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Calcergy and calciphylaxis: timed appearance of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid and osteocalcin in mineral deposits. Lian, J.B., Boivin, G., Patterson-Allen, P., Grynpas, M., Walzer, C. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Serine phosphate, threonine phosphate and gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in normal and experimentally induced, pathologically calcified rat skin (topical cutaneous calciphylaxis). Glimcher, M.J., Reit, B., Kossiva, D. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Calcification of polyurethanes implanted subdermally in rats is enhanced by calciphylaxis. Joshi, R.R., Underwood, T., Frautschi, J.R., Phillips, R.E., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Rapid improvement of calciphylaxis after intravenous pamidronate therapy in a patient with chronic renal failure. Monney, P., Nguyen, Q.V., Perroud, H., Descombes, E. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Risk factors and mortality associated with calciphylaxis in end-stage renal disease. Mazhar, A.R., Johnson, R.J., Gillen, D., Stivelman, J.C., Ryan, M.J., Davis, C.L., Stehman-Breen, C.O. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Control of serum phosphorus: implications for coronary artery calcification and calcific uremic arteriolopathy (calciphylaxis). Block, G.A. Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Parathyroidectomy promotes wound healing and prolongs survival in patients with calciphylaxis from secondary hyperparathyroidism. Girotto, J.A., Harmon, J.W., Ratner, L.E., Nicol, T.L., Wong, L., Chen, H. Surgery (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Calciphylaxis: seven new cases. Alain, J., Poulin, Y.P., Cloutier, R.A., Gagné, E., Baril, J. Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. An unusual presentation of calciphylaxis due to primary hyperparathyroidism. Mirza, I., Chaubay, D., Gunderia, H., Shih, W., El-Fanek, H. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Bone morphogenic protein-4 expression in vascular lesions of calciphylaxis. Griethe, W., Schmitt, R., Jurgensen, J.S., Bachmann, S., Eckardt, K.U., Schindler, R. J. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Calciphylaxis in a patient without renal failure or elevated parathyroid hormone: possible aetiological role of chemotherapy. Goyal, S., Huhn, K.M., Provost, T.T. Br. J. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Calciphylaxis: emerging concepts in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Wilmer, W.A., Magro, C.M. Seminars in dialysis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Systemic calciphylaxis in a patient with end-stage renal disease and a normal parathyroid hormone level taking erythropoietin intramuscularly. Hassaballa, H., Luther, S., Bloom, K.J., Prinz, R.A. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Calciphylaxis mimicking dermatomyositis: ischemic myopathy complicating renal failure. Flanigan, K.M., Bromberg, M.B., Gregory, M., Baringer, J.R., Jones, C.R., Nester, T.A., Klatt, E.C., Townsend, J.J. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Calciphylaxis in a chronic hemodialysis patient with protein S deficiency. Rostaing, L., el Feki, S., Delisle, M.B., Durand-Malgouyres, C., Ton-That, H., Bonafe, J.L., Bories, P., Durand, D., Suc, J.M. American journal of nephrology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Calciphylaxis: a condition mimicking necrotizing vasculitis. Melikoglu, M., Apaydin, S., Hamuryudan, V., Yurdakul, S., Uygun, N., Aki, H., Ozbay, G., Yazici, H. Clin. Rheumatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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