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Disease relevance of Tics


Psychiatry related information on Tics


High impact information on Tics

  • Tics following methylphenidate administration. A report of 20 cases [10].
  • In this report, we examine the in vivo function of a major Tic component, Tic110 [11].
  • BACKGROUND: This study examined changes in attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) behaviors and motor and vocal tics during long-term treatment with methylphenidate [12].
  • Clinician-rated measures of motor tic severity, the degree to which the tics are "noticeable to others," motor tic counts from videotaped interviews, and parent-rated measures of impulsivity and hyperactivity were the most responsive to clonidine treatment [13].
  • Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a potentially debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder defined by the presence of both vocal and motor tics [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tics

  • Tic severity decreased by 31% in the guanfacine group, compared to 0% in the placebo group [15].
  • While neuroleptics, such as haloperidol, are most effective for treatment of the motor and vocal tics of TS, these medications have many side effects [16].
  • The replacement of Phe in both pY + 1 and pY + 3 by Tic (1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was also not tolerated due to steric hindrance [17].
  • Patients were rated for tic severity by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) before treatment and after 1 month of treatment with risperidone [18].
  • Substitution of d-Arg in position 2 with Tic and masking of the lysine amine side chain by Z protection and of the C-terminal carboxylic function instead of the amide function transform a potent and selective mu agonist into a potent and selective delta antagonist H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Lys(Z)-OH [19].

Biological context of Tics


Anatomical context of Tics

  • Sulpiride in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (pfLH) (4, 8 and 16 micrograms/0.5 microliter) increased intracranial temperature (Tic) [23].
  • We then investigated the correlation between the severity of tics in children with TD assessed with the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia [24].

Gene context of Tics

  • For the subgrouped analysis, no results were significant after correction for multiple testing, although homozygosity of DRD2/A2A2 in subjects displaying vocal or motor tics approached significance compared to controls (Fisher exact test, P = 0.008) [25].
  • Membrane proteins, Tic110 and Tic40, and a stromal chaperone, Hsp93, have been proposed to function together within the Tic complex [26].
  • In Arabidopsis, single genes, atTIC110 and atTIC40, encode the Tic proteins, and two homologous genes, atHSP93-V and atHSP93-III, encode Hsp93 [26].
  • Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a sporadic or inherited complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by involuntary motor and vocal tics [27].
  • Co-immunoprecipitation experiments using either Tic32 or Tic110 antisera indicated a tight association between these polypeptides as well as with other Tic subunits, e.g. Tic40, Tic22, or Tic62, whereas the outer envelope protein Toc75 was not found in this complex [28].


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  11. Arabidopsis tic110 is essential for the assembly and function of the protein import machinery of plastids. Inaba, T., Alvarez-Huerta, M., Li, M., Bauer, J., Ewers, C., Kessler, F., Schnell, D.J. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
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  20. A small family of LLS1-related non-heme oxygenases in plants with an origin amongst oxygenic photosynthesizers. Gray, J., Wardzala, E., Yang, M., Reinbothe, S., Haller, S., Pauli, F. Plant Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis and biological activity of [Tic5] didemnin B. Pfizenmayer, A.J., Vera, M.D., Ding, X., Xiao, D., Chen, W.C., Joullié, M.M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  26. In vivo studies on the roles of Tic110, Tic40 and Hsp93 during chloroplast protein import. Kovacheva, S., Bédard, J., Patel, R., Dudley, P., Twell, D., Ríos, G., Koncz, C., Jarvis, P. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. CNTNAP2 is disrupted in a family with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder. Verkerk, A.J., Mathews, C.A., Joosse, M., Eussen, B.H., Heutink, P., Oostra, B.A. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
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