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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, rel

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Disease relevance of Genes, rel


High impact information on Genes, rel

  • The v-rel oncogene encodes a kappa B enhancer binding protein that inhibits NF-kappa B function [4].
  • These two sets of isogenic pairs of rel+ and rel minus strains are commonly used in the study of rel gene function; however, NF161 is a mutant in the spoT gene whose product may be responsible for the degradation of ppGpp [5].
  • The transcription factor NF-kappa B is a heterodimer consisting of two proteins encoded by different members of the rel gene family (p50 and p65) [6].
  • The role of Rel in the monocyte/macrophage lineage was examined in mice with an inactivated c-rel gene [7].
  • The involvement of NF-kappa B in the regulation of the p50 gene is also supported by the inhibition of the PMA activation of the promoter by an NF-kappa B transdominant negative mutant, as well as the product of the v-rel oncogene [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, rel


Biological context of Genes, rel


Anatomical context of Genes, rel


Associations of Genes, rel with chemical compounds

  • Cotransfection of cells from different species with the v-rel gene along with constructs expressing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene under the control of different promoters revealed that p59v-rel is a cell-specific transcriptional transactivator of certain promoters [16].
  • Role of the rel gene product in the control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation [17].
  • This activates the rel gene product which forms ppGpp and pppGpp from GTP and ATP [18].
  • The product of the v-rel oncogene is present at a low level, representing only about 0.003% of total methionine-labelled protein [19].

Gene context of Genes, rel

  • The NF-kappa B transcription factor complex is composed of two proteins, designated p50 and p65, both having considerable homology to the product of the rel oncogene [20].
  • The nuclear factor kappa-B 2 (NFKB2) gene is a member of the NFKB/Rel gene family, which is known to be a pivotal regulator of the acute phase of the inflammatory response and of immune responses [21].
  • Portions of the v-rel gene were joined to the 5' segment of the trpE gene [22].
  • Activation of IL-2 receptor alpha-chain gene by individual members of the rel oncogene family in association with serum response factor [23].
  • The mechanism by which the products of the v-rel oncogene, the corresponding c-rel proto-oncogene, and the related dorsal gene of Drosophila melanogaster exert their effects is not clear [24].


  1. The v-rel oncogene: insights into the mechanism of transcriptional activation, repression, and transformation. Walker, W.H., Stein, B., Ganchi, P.A., Hoffman, J.A., Kaufman, P.A., Ballard, D.W., Hannink, M., Greene, W.C. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus enhancer function by PRDII-BF1 and c-rel gene products. Muchardt, C., Seeler, J.S., Nirula, A., Shurland, D.L., Gaynor, R.B. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. The relA/spoT-homologous gene in Streptomyces coelicolor encodes both ribosome-dependent (p)ppGpp-synthesizing and -degrading activities. Martínez-Costa, O.H., Fernández-Moreno, M.A., Malpartida, F. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. The v-rel oncogene encodes a kappa B enhancer binding protein that inhibits NF-kappa B function. Ballard, D.W., Walker, W.H., Doerre, S., Sista, P., Molitor, J.A., Dixon, E.P., Peffer, N.J., Hannink, M., Greene, W.C. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of stable RNA synthesis and ppGpp levels in growing cells of Escherichia coli. Sokawa, Y., Sokawa, J., Kaziro, Y. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Generation of p50 subunit of NF-kappa B by processing of p105 through an ATP-dependent pathway. Fan, C.M., Maniatis, T. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. The Rel subunit of NF-kappaB-like transcription factors is a positive and negative regulator of macrophage gene expression: distinct roles for Rel in different macrophage populations. Grigoriadis, G., Zhan, Y., Grumont, R.J., Metcalf, D., Handman, E., Cheers, C., Gerondakis, S. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The characterization of the promoter of the gene encoding the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B indicates that it participates in its own regulation. Ten, R.M., Paya, C.V., Israël, N., Le Bail, O., Mattei, M.G., Virelizier, J.L., Kourilsky, P., Israël, A. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. The roles of the rel+ gene and of 4-thiouridine in killing and photoprotection of Escherichia coli by near-ultraviolet radiation. Tsai, S.C., Jagger, J. Photochem. Photobiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax activation of NF-kappa B/Rel involves phosphorylation and degradation of I kappa B alpha and RelA (p65)-mediated induction of the c-rel gene. Sun, S.C., Elwood, J., Béraud, C., Greene, W.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. I kappa B/MAD-3 masks the nuclear localization signal of NF-kappa B p65 and requires the transactivation domain to inhibit NF-kappa B p65 DNA binding. Ganchi, P.A., Sun, S.C., Greene, W.C., Ballard, D.W. Mol. Biol. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. The nuclear factor-kappa B RelA transcription factor is constitutively activated in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Wang, W., Abbruzzese, J.L., Evans, D.B., Larry, L., Cleary, K.R., Chiao, P.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The v-rel oncogene product is complexed with cellular proteins including its proto-oncogene product and heat shock protein 70. Lim, M.Y., Davis, N., Zhang, J.Y., Bose, H.R. Virology (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Serine phosphorylation of the v-rel oncogene product/pp40 complex. Tung, H.Y., Bargmann, W.J., Bose, H.R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. c-Rel is crucial for lymphocyte proliferation but dispensable for T cell effector function. Liou, H.C., Jin, Z., Tumang, J., Andjelic, S., Smith, K.A., Liou, M.L. Int. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The v-rel oncogene encodes a cell-specific transcriptional activator of certain promoters. Gélinas, C., Temin, H.M. Oncogene (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of the rel gene product in the control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation. Braedt, G., Gallant, J. J. Bacteriol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Studies on the control of development. Accumulation of guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate in response to inhibition of protein synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. Rhaese, H.J., Dichtelmüller, H., Grade, R. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Transformation of avian lymphoid cells by reticuloendotheliosis virus. Moore, B.E., Bose, H.R. Mutat. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Functional characterization of the NF-kappa B p65 transcriptional activator and an alternatively spliced derivative. Ruben, S.M., Narayanan, R., Klement, J.F., Chen, C.H., Rosen, C.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human nuclear factor kappa-B 2 gene identified by sequencing the entire gene. Shinohara, Y., Iwasaki, H., Ota, N., Nakajima, T., Kodaira, M., Kajita, M., Shiba, T., Emi, M. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of the oncogene of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus in Escherichia coli and identification of the transforming protein in reticuloendotheliosis virus T-transformed cells. Herzog, N.K., Bose, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Activation of IL-2 receptor alpha-chain gene by individual members of the rel oncogene family in association with serum response factor. Pierce, J.W., Jamieson, C.A., Ross, J.L., Sen, R. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Oncogenic transformation by vrel requires an amino-terminal activation domain. Kamens, J., Richardson, P., Mosialos, G., Brent, R., Gilmore, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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